4 Renaissance Science and Philosophy

4 Renaissance Science and Philosophy - 4 Renaissance...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
4 Renaissance Science and Philosophy RENAISSANCE The period from about 1450 to about 1600 when there was a rebirth of the open, objective inquiry that had characterized the early Greek philosophers. It was the time when Europe gradually switched from being God-centered to being human-centered. That if God was manifested into nature then the focus was more so now in the earth then in heaven. CHALLENGES TO CHURCH AUTHORITY A. The Renaissance and the breakdown of the church authority went hand and hand. 1. The truths about the bible were now being challenged. 2. Church dogma consisted of fixed truths: there are exactly seven heavenly bodies in the solar system, the earth is the center of the universe, and humans are created in God’s image. 3. Questioning escalated and the church tried to discourage the challenges to authority. 4. Church scholars attempted to show that contradictions were only apparent, they failed and tried to impose censorship, but it was too late. 5. Church dogma was replaced by the very thing it had opposed the most-the direct observation of nature without the intervention of theological considerations. B. Aquinas’s acceptance of reason and the examination of nature as ways of knowing God. 1 Human capacity to reason was focused everywhere, including on church dogma. 2 The work of the humanists philosophy recaptured the spirit of the opening inquiry reflected in the Greeks, and also stressed the human potential to act upon the world an change it for the better. 3 One key factor that weakened the authority of the church and made it easy to accept the objective study of nature was: a. The explorations of central Asia and China from 1271 to 1295 by Marco Polo. b. Discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus (1492).
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
c. Circumnavigation of the globe by Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition (1519-1522). 4 The discovery that the earth was filled with strange people with strange customs created many problems for the church. 6. Second key factor: Johannes Gutenberg’s (ca. 1397-1468) invention of metal moveable type (ca. 1436-1440) in the West, thus creating modern printing techniques. C. The advert of printing made it easier to copy books. 1 Copying books by hand was slow and it limited availability and stifled new thought. 7. Printing changed all that and within a few decades the number of books increased. RENAISSANCE HUMANISM Major Themes 1. Humanism as it applies to the Renaissance: denotes an intense interest in human beings, as if we were discovering ourselves for the first time. 2. How do we think, behave, and feel? What are we capable of? A. Individualism : There was great concern with human potential and achievement. The belief in the power of the individual (as opposed to the church or the state) to make a positive difference in the world created a spirit of optimism.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern