curs_2 - Curs 2 Circuite Layout Cuprins O scurt istorie...

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Curs 2: Circuite & Layout
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CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 1: Circuits & Layout 2 Cuprins O scurtă istorie Proiectarea unei porți CMOS Tranzistori de trecere Bistabile Layout-ul unei celule standard Diagrame
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CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 1: Circuits & Layout 3 O scurtă istorie 1958: Primul circuit integrat Bistabil utilizând 2 tranzitoare Dezvoltat de Jack Kilby la Texas Instruments 2010 Intel Core i7 processor 2.3 miliarde transistori Memora Flash 64 Gb > 16 miliarde transistori Courtesy Texas Instruments [Trinh09] © 2009 IEEE
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CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 1: Circuits & Layout 4 Rata de creștere Rata de creștere 53% anuală – peste 50 ani Nici o lată tehnologie nu a cunoscut o asemnea creștere rapidă pe termen lung. Efectele miniaturizării tranzistorilor Mai mic este mai ieftin, mai rapid, putere consumată mai mică Efect revoluționar în societate [Moore65] Electronics Magazine
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CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 1: Circuits & Layout 5 Vânzările anuale >10 19 tranzistoare fabricate in 2008 1 miliard pentru fiecare om de pe planetă
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CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 1: Circuits & Layout 6 Inventarea tranzistorului Tuburile cu vaccum apărute în prima jumătate a secolului 20 th - mari, scumpe, consumatoare de putere 1947: primul tranzistor de contact John Bardeen și Walter Brattain la Bell Labs A sevedea Crystal Fire de Riordan, Hoddeson AT&T Archives. Reprinted with permission.
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CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 1: Circuits & Layout 7 Tipuri de tranzistoare Tranzistoare bipolare npn sau pnp structură de silicon Curent mic într-un layer de bază foarte subțire controlează curenți mari între emitor și colector Curenții de bază limitează densitatea de integrare Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors nMOS și pMOS MOSFETS Tensiunea aplicată porții controlează curentul între sursă și drenă Puetrea mică permite o integrare foarte mare
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CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 1: Circuits & Layout 8 În 1970’s procesoarele aveau doar tranzistoare nMOS Preț mic, se consumă curent în starea idle 1980s-prezent: Procese CMOS pentru putere mică în starea idle Circuite integrate MOS Intel 1101 256-bit SRAM Intel 4004 4-bit Proc [Vadasz69] © 1969 IEEE. Intel Museum. Reprinted with permission.
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CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.
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