16thcentury - Spanish 42 Imperial Spain(16th century by...

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Spanish 42 Imperial Spain (16 th century) by John Dagenais
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Imperial Spain (16 th century) Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) 1519- 1556 King Philip II (1556-1598)
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Carlos V and his Empire (Europe)
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The Renaissance Begins in Italy in 1300’s; really takes-off mid 1400’s Interest in classical antiquity (literature, art, architecture) Revival of classical Latin and Greek Humanism: sought to research/teach through the careful study of grammar, rhetoric, history, and poetry of the Latin and Greek languages Was not new set of ideas on “the dignity of man” Desiderius Erasmus (1469-1536); “Biblical Humanism” In Handbook of a Christian Knight (1504) , Erasmus urged readers to learn the teachings of Christ by studying and meditating on the Scriptures
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Spain and the Renaissance The Renaissance came late to Castile (if at all) Entered largely through Aragonese holdings in Italy and was strongest in Valencia and Catalonia Greco-Roman mythology and style pervade art (literature, painting, sculpture) In Iberia represents more the adoption of new artistic styles, values and techniques than a profound transformation of society.
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In Literature Poets, Juan Boscan and Garcilaso de la Vega, adopt the Italian sonnet Notions of love as inherited from Italian poet Petrarch (1304-1374) Neo-Platonism, inspired ultimately in the rediscovery of Plato Fray Luis de Leon translated numerous poems by Horace, Latin poet
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Biblia políglota. Alcalá de Henares: Arnao Guillén de Brocar, 1514-17. Inv. núm. 1170
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Imperial Economy Spanish crown is constantly in debt throughout the 16 th century Gold and silver from America arrive in great quantities. War in Flanders, and the cost of maintaining a large standing army (mostly mercenaries) rapidly deplete royal wealth German and Genoese creditors partially fund Charles V’s and Philip II’s imperialist wars Need to import food (wheat, corn) also drains revenue Mesta continues; strong agricultural sector never develops The Crown suffers 3 bankruptcies: 1557, 1575, and 1597
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