Span 42 1898-1936 Sloves Spring 2014

Span 42 1898-1936 Sloves Spring 2014 - Spain 1898-1936...

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Spain 1898-1936 Fishing for the Bottom Based on materials prepared by Kent Dickson, Gabriela Capraroiu, John Dagenais and Max Sloves
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19 th c. in Review The erosion of colonial holdings bottoms out with the loss of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines in the Spanish American War of 1898 . Democratic reform is never completely established in Spain -- turnismo inspires distrust of government. Unequal modernization of economy heightens tensions along disparate class, political, ethnic, and geographic/regional lines.
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1898 - Spanish American War Know the Date – it’s a big one!
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Economic/Cultural Shifts in Cuba Cuban elites (many criollos and some mestizos ) being educated in US. Establish relationships with US cultural, political and economic interests in Florida and New York. Cuba a ripe target for US expansion. Estimates are that by the 1890’s over 90% of Cuba’s economy is tied to US ownership, US suppliers, and/or US consumers. As Cuban landowners lose ground to US ownership, Cuba’s dependence on the US market increases. Accordingly, US interest in Cuba also increases Spain losing influence and control over the crown jewel of fading empire!
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Cuba Independence movements have been fomenting in Cuba and the Philippines for sometime. Cuba is symbolically a very important colonial holding for Spain: big, old, sugar, tobacco, culture. Limited diversity of economy allows foreign interests to gain leverage over Cuba. Shifts in sugar and tobacco markets devalue Cuban holdings allow US interests to purchase huge sectors the Cuban economy. Trade disputes and competition Price of sugar drops Cigar manufacturing moved to US: Cuba left with just the leaf. Cf. ….?
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José Mart Cuban author: e.g., Nuestra America and Versos sencillos . Political and intellectual leader: Travelled extensively. While in New York he had freedom of expression and access to publication that allowed for broader dissemination of a liberal Cuban nationalist agenda. Declared rebellion against Spain in 1895. Returned to Cuba in 1895 and died “in battle”. Shot…? …or fell off his horse???
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Jose Marti – Man or Myth?
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1896 – General Weyler declares martial law With growing unrest, and insurgent activity, Spain sends in an old pro: Don Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau , a veteran of military campaigns in Philippines and Spain. Very unpopular choice with Cubans. Weyler did not earn the nickname “The Butcher” because of his surgical precision and – used brutish “broadsword” approach to solving problems. Response to guerrilla tactics: Engaged in campaign of “reconcentration”. Disease in camps resulted in thousands of deaths. Political / PR disaster in Cuba and US.
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Cutting apart The Butcher Emerged from the military class that gained power throughout 19 th c.
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