Spain Today (and a Brief Review) -2 - A Quick Review The...

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A Quick Review
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The Eighteeth Century Enlightenment in France The Encyclopedia
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The Enlightenment in France How a Clock Works from Diderot’s Encyclopedia
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The Enlightenment in Spain
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1898 and the Existential Crisis of a Nation: 2 Approaches Regeneracionismo Objective, scientific approach to analyzing Spain’s decline. The past is an anchor weighing Spain down. Look to the future. Catch up to modern world. Ex: Joaquín Costa, Benito Pérez Galdós and José Ortega y Gasset. Generacion de ’98 Literary, artistic, subjective response to national crisis. Spain’s decadence a result of European influence. Loss of Spain’s heritage as unique / different / independent. Ex: Miguel de Unamuno, Antonio Machado, Pío Baroja.
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Issues for the Generation of ’98: After 100 Years of Turmoil and the Loss of an Empire, A Search for the Lost Soul of Spain Spain vs. Europe Spain vs. Africa Spain vs. Germanic Culture=Visigoths Spain and Latin Culture=Romans Tradition vs. Modernity
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Moving on to the Early 20 th Century
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Compare Recent Events in Egypt to Understand the Situation in Spain in the Early 20 th Century (and after) A popular uprising overthrows an ‘elected’ president: Mubarak A religiously-oriented conservative government is elected into office: Morsi In Spain, it was a secular socialist/communis t gov’t under Manuel Azaña and Juan Negrín that caused the revolt That elected government is overthrown by popular unrest and a military seeking to impose order (=Franco and the Nationalists) The leader of the military ‘coup’ becomes the interim ruler and is subsequently elected president: al-Sisi Of course, Franco was never actually elected head of state
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Spain: Political and Social Background 1898: The Spanish-American War: loss of last colonial possessions: Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines Economic underdevelopment in relation to major powers Conflict between absolutism and liberalism Church: significant force in political life Emergence of far-left groups Sentiment of separatism in Catalonia and the Basque provinces
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Political Instability-1 Political forces at the beginning of the 20th century Right: landowners, army, church Liberal: middle class, intellectuals, working groups Left: anarchists, syndicalists, socialists, communists Left and right extreme groups caused instability in the government during this period.
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Political Instability-2 1902-1931: Weak reign of Alfonso XIII 1907-1909: Conservative Party, Antonio Maura 1908: Rebellion in Morocco 1909: The Tragic Week in Barcelona: violent response of the left forces against the central government 1910-1912: Liberal Party, Jose Canalejas
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Political Instability-3 1914-1918: World War I Spain remained neutral Spain became an important center for matters of international policy and finance.
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