ANTH Exam 2 Study Guide Terms

ANTH Exam 2 Study Guide Terms - The “ other” ­ o ther...

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Unformatted text preview: The “ other” ­ o ther t han h uman e x. A sian, b lack; w estern c ivilization w ere o nly c onsidered h uman Boundary M aintenance­ T he r ecognition o f d ifference Colonized O ther­ 1 . T amed 2 . T rained 3 . E liminate White M an’s B urden­ p hrase o f t he E ngland C olonialism; A s a n E nglish m en I c ontrol A frica; t his i s o ur j ustify r eason f or t aking over o ther p laces b ecause G od g ave u s t his b urden Manifest D estiny­ c onnected t o N orth A merica­ j ustify t o s pread w est ( colonialized) a nd t o k ill t hose w ho d on’t f ollow u s; b y making o ur d estiny r eal Age o f S cience­ w hy s cience b ecome p art o f o ur e veryday l ives Charles D arwin­ influential t hinker o f 1 9 th c entury; n aturalist a nd w as n ot a S ocial D arwinist h e h ates i t Origin o f S pecies­ w rites a bout a nimals a nd p lant e volution Social D arwinism­ use e volution t o e xplain h umanity; h as n othing t o d o w / s cience Herbert S pencer­ l eading S ocial D arwinism; n ot s cientist i s a p hilosopher; c ame t o U S d uring d ebate o f s lavery a nd b elieve slavery i s f ine Unilineal E volution­ E volution g oes t o 1 d irection 1 l ane; f ormalized t he w eak Ranking: W estern E uropean ( human)→ A ustralian ( less h uman) Race­ d ifferent s pecies o f b eings; b egin t o t alk a bout t his c ause o f S ocial D arwinism Fossil O ther­ C ultures w hich c an n o l onger c hange­ t hey a re “ dead” c ultures Phenotype­ Superficial p hysical c haracteristics Essentialism­ I nherited u nchanging c haracteristics t hat d etermines b ehavior, t emperament & i ntelligence Polygenesis ­ M any o rigin Scientific R acism ­ a ll o f t he S ocial D arwinist i deas o f r ace i s b ased o n s cience Phenology­ F acial c haracteristics d etermine y our n ature e x. S ize o f l ips, h ead, e ar Franz B oas­ F ather o f A merican A nthropology; N ot A merican & A nthropologist/Is a G erman G eologist 1883­ c hange t o a nthro. Inuit ­ s urvives a nd a lso t hrive i n a g roup Evolution­ A ll l ife c hanges Adaption R adiation­ A s a n o rganism m oves o r f inds i tself i n a n ew e nvironment i t m ust a dapt o f b ecome e xtinct Cretaceous P eriod­ ( 114 m illion y rs a go­Dinosaurs) E xtinction L vl E vent b rings a n e nd t o D ino; d estroy v egetation; c limate change; A nimal o nly b ecame d ominant l ife f orm b ecause o f t he e nd o f t his p eriod Catahrrine P rimates­ ( 40 m illion y rs. A go) N ew k inds o f a nimal; 1 st P rimates 3 0 m il. Y rs. A go­ M onkeys­ H ominids 5 ­6 m il y rs. Ago Hominids ­ H uman, G orillas, C himpanzees & O rangutans a re o nly p art o f t his; s hare 9 8% g enes t ogether; n ot d escendent o f a pes but r ather s hare e volution Arboreal­ P erfectly s uited t o t he e nvironment Rift V alley­ c reated b y v olcanic a ctivity Important t hings i t d oes­ 1­ 2­ Creates a n i mmensely d ivide Affect w ater. L imit r ainfall i n A frica ( East A frica b ecomes t he S avannahs) Opposable T humbs­ S ize o f t humb r elative t o o ther d igits Interdigital G rip­ a llows u s t o p ick t hings u p b ut d ifferentiate u s f rom p rimate b ecause w e c an m ake a nd u se p recision t ools Bipedal­ s tand u p s traight & w alk o n 2 l egs Spindle C ells­ w here a bstract t hinking t akes p lace ( 80,000 m ore t han g orilla); e ast v alley e ats m eat f or p rotein Australopithecus­ p roto­human ( near h uman b ut n ot u s); s hort, h air, f lat f ace, u pright s ocial s kills; l ive i n s maller g roups Homo E rectus­ C loser t o u s; A l ot l ike u s b ut n ot u s; p hysically & s ocially; l ive i n l arger g roups Homo S apiens ­ U s; m onogenesis “Out o f A frica” ­ M igration t hat h as n ot e nded y et; M ove c onstantly; e xplain c ultural d iversity “Butler A ct”­ f orbid t eaching o f e volution ­John S copes c hallenged i t i n 1 925 p ut i n j ail a nd M onkey t rial Dayton T ennessee ­ H as a l aw t hat p revent t eaching e volution Monkey T rial­ 2 l awyers­ W illiam J ennings B ryant ( lawyer o f T ennessee) & C larence D arrow ( from N Y w hich i s r ural) Creationism ­ B ible i s l iteral w ord o f G od ( rejects e volution) Intelligent D esign ­ r eject e volution; l ife o n p lanet a re t oo c omplex t o e volve t he w ay s cientists s tated, b ut b e d esign b y a greater b eing → g od Eugenics­ P art o f S ocial D arwinism; s cience o f c reating a s uperior t hrough m anipulation i ts g enetics p rimarily t hrough b reeding Positive E ugenics ­ i ncreasing t he # o f s uperior g enetic s pecimens Negative E ugenics­ decreasing t he # o f i nferior g enetic s pecimens Francis G alton ­ F ather o f E ugenics Miscegenation­ M ixing o f r aces Anti­Miscegenation L aws­ ( Neg. E ugenics) R ace L aw Hypo­Descent­ t he o ffspring o f a m ixed r acial m arriage w ill i nherit t he e ssential t raits o f t he r ationally i nferior p arent Wilbur C ross­ C ommission 1 936 s urvey o f H uman R esources o f C onnecticut ­Design t o a s cientific s urvey t o d etermine h ow m any a nd w ho i s i nferior Lebensborn C amps­ ( Pos. E ugenics) e xpensive n ice s ummer c amp w here w omen 2 0+ v olunteer t o l ive t here; g ets v isited b y officers o f S S; a fter w ar n o o ne w ants t hese k ids Repository F or G erminal C hoice­ R obert G ram c reated t his; P eople d onate s perm i f t hey h ave a h igh I Q; I n t he e nd, s ome offspring d id w ell, w ent t o j ail, o r a verage The B ell C urve­ U S i ntelligence l vl f alls a long t he c urve p roved t o w ork b y I Q t est Intelligent Q uotient­ t est b asic i ntelligence­ d irect r esults o f h eritage & s omething y ou c an’t c hange; e nded b ecause o f b ad science b ut s till h eld 6 Millions Yrs. Of Humanity In Descent Man what did Darwin realize? ­ Darwin realized that humans and African apes are closely related biologically. 4 Popular Misconceptions about human evolution­ 1. Your ancestors were not chimpanzees or gorillas. ­ The living apes are our cousins, not our evolutionary grandparents. 2. There is no missing link 3. The main difference between apes and human is bipedal locomotion ­ People believe that brain size and intelligence are main differences but the first change is the form of locomotion; Anthropologist judge the fossil if they walk on 2 legs often like human 4. The human family tree is a bush ­ Human evolution is not linear like what most people thought; Several species hominids existed at the same time Why is understanding our evolutionary history relevant for understanding modern humans? – Characteristics of living species are a product of the forces that shaped it in its past. Can have a better understanding of human nature ...
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