Unformatted text preview: Psyc 1100 Exam 3 Study Topics Sensation/Perception Color vision ● YoungHelmholtz theory (Sensation) There are three type of color receptor conesred, green, & blue. (NOT ACTUALLY THE COLOR) ○ Red cones are cones that specifically react more to those that are red. ○ These specific cones will react more than it’s neighbor. ○ Color Perception comes from combinations of cone stimulation ● Opponent process theory refers to the neural process of perceiving white as the opposite of perceiving black; similarly, yellow vs. blue, and red vs. green are opponent processes. ○ How our brain interpret the info from the retina ○ In each color pair, both color cannot be stimulated ○ Explains the color afterimage that occurs after the initial stimulus is gone ○ Four basic colors, BlueYellow, RedGreen. Divided in 2 sets of color sensitive neuron. Each color opposes each other. Black and White are also opposing pair ● The retina’s redgreenblue color receptors respond in varying degree to color stimuli (Trichromatic color) Color Blindness ● People missing red cones or green cones have trouble differentiating red from green and thus have have trouble reading the numbers to the right ○ The % to responding to red < The % of responding to green ● Dogs are dichromatic they can see green and blue, Monochromatic is seeing black and white Gestalt Psychologists ● What does g estalt mean? German word meaning a “form” or a “Whole” ○ Max Wertheimer was one of the founders of Gestalt Psychology ○ People organize sensations into a meaningful whole ● Define the different Gestalt principles of organization (proximity, closure, continuation, etc.) ○ The tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups ○ Proximity Tend to want to group things near each other ○ Similarity Tend to want to group things by similarity ○ Connectedness Tend to pair into connectiveness ○ Closure Ten to close and image. ○ Continuity Tend to see smooth and continuous pattern ● Define figure vs. ground in perception of visual scene ○ In most visual scenes, we pick out objects and figures, standing out against a background. ○ Some art gives us the ability of equal choices to choose what is figure and what is ground. Understand depth perception ● Visual cliff A test of depth perception.Labratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals Babies seem to develop this ability at crawling age ○ Even new born animals fear the perceived cliff ● Monocular vs. binocular cues to depth perception ○ Binocular cues because our eyes are about 2.5 inches apart, your retinas receive slightly different images of the world. By comparing the two images the brain is able to judge how close an object is to you. The greater the r etinal disparity , or difference between the two images, the closer the object ○ Monocular cues depth cues available to each eye separately ■ Relative Height We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away Because we assume the lower part of a figureground illustration is closer, hence we perceive it as a figure ■ Relative Motion As we move, objects that are usually stable may appear to move. Fixation point (PG 238) ■ Relative Size If we assume two objects are similar in size, most people perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away ● We intuitively know to interpret familiar objects (of known size) as farther away when they appear smaller. ■ Linear Perspective our perception of distance affects our perception of length ■ Interposition If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer ■ Light and Shadow Shading produces a sense of depth, sense that light comes from above. ● Perceptual Constancy perceiving objects as unchanging (Having consistent shapes, size, brightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change ● Color constancy our experience of color depends on the object’s context. Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object (PG 239) ● Brightness constancy We perceive an object having a constant brightness even when its illumination varies. Depends on the object context and the relative luminancethe amount of light an object reflex relative to its surroundings ● Shape constancy Sometimes an object actual shape cannot change seems to change shape with the angle of ● Size constancy we perceive objects as having a constant size, even while our distance from them varies ● What is perceptual adaptation? ○ The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field ● Understand the process of sound transduction ○ Deliver acoustic stimulus to the receptors ○ Transduce the stimulus from pressure changes into electrical signals ○ ○
○ ○ Process these electrical signals(via nerve impulses), sending to the brain so that they can efficiently indicate the qualities of the sound source such as pitch, loudness, and location Outer Ear responsible for gathering sound energy and funneling it to the eardrum (tight membrane) Middle Ear acts as a mechanical transformer. Sound waves hit the eardrum and move the hammer, anvil, and stirrup in ways that amplify the vibration. The stirrup then sends these vibrations to the oval window of the cochlea Inner ear a uditory receptors (hair cells) are located. Wave of fluid move from the oval window over the cochlea’s “hair” receptor cells. These cells send signals through the auditory nerves to temporal lobe of the brain ● Identify the functions and parts of the ear and auditory system ○ Middle Ear T he chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window. ■ Cochlea a coiled bony, fluidfilled tube in the inner ear; sound wave traveling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses. Snailed shape tube. ● Inner Ear The innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs. Incoming vibration causes the cochlea’s membrane to vibrate, jostling the fluid that fills the tube. This causes the ripples to the basilar membrane bending the hair cells lining its surface. Hair cell movement triggers impulses in the adjacent nerve cells. Axon of those cells converge and form auditory nerve, which sends neural messages to the auditory cortex in the brain’s temporal lobe ● ● Understand pitch processing, what is the role of wave frequency and wave amplitude in hearing sound ○ Frequency corresponds to our perception of pitch. Low frequency=low pitch, High frequency= high pitch. Length of the sound wave; perceived as high and low sounds (pitch) ○ Amplitude corresponds to our per perception of loudness. Height or intensity of sound wave; perceived as loud and soft volume. High amplitude=Loud Sound,, Low amplitude= soft sound ○ Complexity corresponds to our perception of timbre. Perceived as sound quality or resonance. Simple(pure tone) Complex (mix of frequencies) Know the parts of the middle ear (conduction hearing) and inner ear (sensorineural hearing) ○ Conduction hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea) ○ Sensorineural Hearing loss damage to the cochlea hair cell (AKA Nerve deafness) Damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or to the auditory nerve ■ How does a cochlear implant work? ● A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea ● Understand Place theory, Frequency theory and the Volley Principle in relation to pitch perception ○
○ Place Theory B rain responds to location where the signals are coming from (for high frequencies) Frequency Theory At low sound frequencies, hair cells send signals at whatever rate the sound is received. Volley Principle At ultra high frequencies, receptor cells fire in succession, combing signals to reach higher firing rates. Alternate firing. ● What is the McGurk effect? ○ illustrates that what our eyes see can influence what we hear. ● What is embodied cognition? ○ refers to the effect of body experience on feelings, attitudes, thoughts, and judgments ■ holding a warm mug promotes social warmth. ■ social rejection looks like pain reception in the brain. ■ words on a heavy clipboard seem… weighty. ■ being ignored (cold shoulder) makes a room seem colder.in a foul smelling room, people were more likely to suspect bad intentions (foul play) by others. ■ leaning left physically leaning left politically ● What is synaesthesia? ○ is the involuntary experience of combining two senses in specific and reliable ways LEARNING The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors Relatively permanent change in a person’s behavior to a given situation due to repeated experiences in that situation, provided that the change cannot be explained on basis of native response tendencies, maturation Cognitive Learning Acquiring behaviors through observation/ information, not experience Associative Learning Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (operant conditioning) Habituation ● Simplest form of learning ● Response to a repeated stimulus declines with repetition ● A response you can’t control Sensitization ● A response you can control Classical Conditioning ● Learning link between stimuli to help anticipate an event. A neutral stimulus (NS) become paired with some stimulus (US) that causes a reflexive behavior UR, and in time is sufficient to produce the response. ● US=Unconditioned Stimulus Elicits an automatic response (unconditioned response) that does not depend on prior learning ● UR=Unconditioned Response The reflexive, or automatic response that is elicited by the US, does not require learning, but does depend on certain circumstances ● CS=Conditioned Stimulus The originally neutral stimulus that after being paired enough times with the US, is sufficient enough to evoke the same response as the US ●
● CR=Conditioned Response the same response as the unconditioned response, however it is now paired with the conditioned stimulus (CS) alone Acquisition is the initial learning of the conditioned response Be able to identify the US / UR and the CS / CR in a given classical conditioning scenario Define what a “stimulus” is and what a “response” is ○ Stimulus any event or situation that evokes a response Who was Ivan Pavlov, and what did we learn from him? Who was John Watson? Describe his experiments with Little Albert ● ● ● ● ● What is higherorder conditioning? ○ a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (but weaker) conditioned stimulus (Second order conditioning) Describe the Acquisition phase of classical conditioning ○ the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. Define the term e xtinction as it relates to classical conditioning ○ The weakening of a conditioned response when the pairing between the CS and US. The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in Classical conditioning, when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS) What is spontaneous recovery? ○ The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. The reappearance of the CR after extinction takes place Know the definitions and distinctions between Generalization and Discrimination ○ Generalization the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses ○ Discrimination the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus Operant Conditioning ● Changing behavior in response to consequences ○ Who was Edward Thorndike? What is the Law of Effect? ■ Criticized Romanes thinking (Reasons and Method) ■ Anecdotal evidence not reliable ■ There are no observation of animals learning to operate latches or escape mechanisms ■ ROMANE believe that animal must have used reasoning to get out the box ■ Law of Effect b ehaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely ○ Who was BF Skinner? What did he do for our understanding of operant conditioning? ■ A college English major and an aspiring writer who seek a new direction, entered psychology graduate school. He went to become modern behaviorism ○ What is a Skinner box? ■ A chamber containing bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking ○ ● ● ● What is shaping by successive approximations? ■ Reward responses that are ever closer to the final desired behavior, and ignore all other behavior ■ An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior Reinforcement vs. Punishment ○ Reinforcement: any event that strengthen the behavior it follows ○ Punishment: an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows Positive vs. Negative ○ Be able to identify examples of ■ Positive Reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthen the response ● adding something desirable (e.g., warmth, food, good grade) ■ Negative Reinforcement increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when r emoved after a response, strengthens the response ● ending something unpleasant (e.g. alarm clock, nagging child, headache) ■ Positive Punishment:You ADD something unpleasant/aversive (ex: spank the child) ■ Negative Punishment:You TAKE AWAY something pleasant/ desired (ex: no TV time ○ Understand the different partial schedules of reinforcement ■ Ratio schedules: reward every five targeted behaviors ● Fixes: We may plan for a certain ratio of rewards per number of instances of the desired behavior. ● Variable: reward after a randomly chosen instance of the target behavior ■ Interval Schedules: reward every hour ● Fixed: We may schedule our reinforcements based on an interval of time that has gone by ● Variable: reward after a changing/random amount of time passes ■ Fixed vs. Variable (for both ratio and interval schedules) ● At a certain point: Fix ● Randomly: Variable How do Garcia and Koellig’s experiments with taste aversion in rats highlight the biological predispositions to learning (limits to conditioning)? ○ They relate to certain consequences. Like when giving a shock for drinking 2 types of water. Noisy water and sweet water. THEY WILL NOT TRY NOISY WATER AGAIN even though both give shock. Cause noisy water is similar to shock ● What is latent learning? How did Tolman and Honzik show latent learning in rats? ○ Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it ...
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- Fall '08
- Psychology, Unconditioned stimulus, neutral stimulus, new neutral stimulus