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SOCI 101 Exam 1 Study Guide - EXAM I STUDY GUIDE for...

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EXAM I– STUDY GUIDE for textbook concepts Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 Students are allowed ONE 3” x 5” card of notes for the exam. Yes, both sides . . CHAPTER 1 THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE After studying the chapter, review each of the following terms and people. You will need to know the definition and be able to apply the concepts KEY TERMS applied sociology : the use of sociology to solve problems—from the micro level of family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution (p. 12) basic (or pure) sociology : sociological research whose purpose is to make discoveries about life in human groups, not to make changes in those groups (p. 12) class conflict : Marx’s term for the struggle between capitalists and workers (p. 7) closed-ended questions : questions followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent (p. 25) conflict theory : a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as being composed of groups competing for scarce resources (p. 18) control group : the group of subjects not exposed to the independent variable (p. 28) dependent variable : a factor that is changed by an independent variable (p. 28) documents : in its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photographs, movies, and so on (p. 28) experiment : the use of control groups and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation (p. 28) experimental group : the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable (p. 28) functional analysis : a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism (p. 16) 1
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Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective hypothesis : a statement of the expected relationship between variables according to predictions from a theory (p. 20) independent variable : a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable (p. 28) macro-level analysis : an examination of large-scale patterns of society (p. 18) micro-level analysis : an examination of small-scale patterns of society (p. 19) nonverbal interaction : communication without words through gestures, space, silence, and so on (p. 19) open-ended questions : questions that respondents are able to answer in their own words (p. 25) operational definitions : the ways in which variables in a hypothesis are measured (p. 20) participant observation (or fieldwork ): research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting (p. 28) population : the target group to be studied (p. 24) positivism : the application of the scientific method to the social world (p. 6) random sample : a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study (p. 24) reliability : the extent to which data produce consistent results (p.
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