OUTLINE 3b

OUTLINE 3b - OUTLINES FOR BIOLOGY 1201 Section 001 Summer...

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OUTLINES FOR BIOLOGY 1201 Section 001 Summer 2008 DR. STEVEN POMARICO Outline 3B CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY Energy flows through ecosystems while the chemicals within an ecosystem are recycled (see fig. 9.2) Energy flow: Light => organic molecules => ATP + heat Respiration: An Overview - 8.1.3 >>>>> Cellular respiration and fermentation are catabolic pathways --- Fermentation -no ATP production -organic electron donors and acceptors --- Cellular respiration -catabolism of organic molecules -ATP production -inorganic electron acceptor C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 => 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy (ATP + heat) How much energy?? ΔG= -686 kcal/mol of sugar. >>>>>The ATP generated is used for work and then regenerated (see fig. 8.12) Redox: A Brief Review - 8.1.4
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>>>>> Redox reactions release energy when electrons move closer to electronegative atoms. --- Redox reactions (a.k.a. Oxidation-reduction reactions) --- Oxidation --- Reduction Generalized redox reaction Xe - + Y => X + Ye - Xe - is oxidized to X and Y is reduced to Ye - X is the reducing agent, and Y is the oxidizing agent The transfer of electrons doesn’t have to be a complete transfer (shown above) it may only be a partial transfer (e.g., combustion of methane) (see fig. 9.3) >Cellular respiration as a redox reaction C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 => 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O Carbon and hydrogen of C 6 H 12 O 6 is oxidized to 6 CO 2 and 6 H 2 O , oxygen of 6 O 2 is reduced to 6 H 2 O The valence electrons of carbon and hydrogen have less potential energy as they shift toward the more electronegative oxygen atoms; the released energy is used to make ATP Cellular fuels (e.g., carbohydrates and fats) are rich in C-H bonds Coenzymes: The Role of NAD + - 8.1.6 >>>>>The redox “fall” of electrons in cellular respiration is stepwise and uses (NAD + ) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Electrons removed from glucose during cellular respiration are not transferred directly to oxygen, but are first passed to a special electron receptor NAD +
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--- NAD + (see fig. 9.4) --- coenzyme R R | dehydrogenase | H-C-OH + NAD + ============> C=O + NADH + H + | | R’ R’ NAD + is reduced to NADH , and CHRR’OH is oxidized to CRR’O NAD + has only slightly greater affinity for electrons than other organic molecules. The electrons that are transferred to NAD+ are then transferred into the electron transport chain --- electron transport chain (see fig 9.5) >>>>>Cellular respiration is a cumulative function of glycolysis , the Krebs cycle , and electron transport. Three metabolic stages of cellular respiration (see fig 9.6)
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OUTLINE 3b - OUTLINES FOR BIOLOGY 1201 Section 001 Summer...

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