OUTLINE 1c - OUTLINES FOR BIOLOGY 1201 Section 001 Summer...

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OUTLINES FOR BIOLOGY 1201 Section 001 Summer 2008 DR. STEVEN POMARICO Outline 1C CHAPTER 3 WATER AND THE FITNESS OF THE ENVIRONMENT Water: Hydrogen Bonding, Solubility, and Specific Heat - 3.1.1 Cells are 70-95% water. Water cover 70% of the earth’s surface. >>>>>Some of the most biologically important polar covalent bonds are the bonds in water molecules. Oxygen pulls more because it is closer to being full. It is ¾ full where as hydrogen is ½ full Because of these polar covalent bonds water is a polar molecule . (top is negative, bottom is positive) This is an example of an emergent property. The polarity of water molecules makes water a good solvent for molecules that have charged regions (i.e. polar molecules) or atoms that are charged (i.e. ions) Water is a very versatile solvent (see fig. 3.6 and fig 3.7). --- Solution A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances --- Solvent A liquid in which substances are dissolved --- Solute The dissolved substance --- aqueous solution Water's polarity along with hydrogen bonding orders water into a higher level of structural order (see fig. 3.2).
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This higher structural order and polarity results in some other extraordinary emergent properties: Water resists changes in temperature because of high specific heat . – energy (in calories) required to raise 1 gram of substances by 1 degree Celsius H2O=1, which is higher than most substances *Ex: Water takes a while to boil, pool takes a while to warm up* >>>>>>This helps to moderate the effects of changes in temperature. In places with a lot of moisture, temperature raises and falls slowly --- Heat The Kinetic energy due to molecular motion with in matter --- Kinetic energy The energy of motion --- Temperature The measure of heat of matter --- Celsius scale Temperature scale Temperature at which water melts Temperature at which water boils Temperature of the human body Celsius 0 o C 100 o C 37 o C Fahrenheit 32 o F 212 o F 98.6 o F Kelvin 273 o K 373
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OUTLINE 1c - OUTLINES FOR BIOLOGY 1201 Section 001 Summer...

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