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OUTLINE 2a - OUTLINES FOR BIOLOGY 1201 Section 001 Summer...

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OUTLINES FOR BIOLOGY 1201 Section 001 Summer 2008 DR. STEVEN POMARICO Outline 1E CHAPTER 5 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis: Disaccharides – 5.1.2 >>>>>Macromolecules and polymers. ---Macromolecules Large organic molecules which are usually polymers ---Polymer Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together ---Monomer A subunit (or building block) of a polymer >>>>>The reaction that forms a polymer from monomers is a polymerization reaction. Most biological polymerization reactions are condensation reactions also called a dehydration synthesis reaction (see fig 5.2). ---Condensation reactions (a.k.a. dehydration synthesis reaction ) Polymerization reactions in which the covalent linkage of the monomers is accompanied by the removal of a water molecule ---Hydrolysis (water splitting) The breaking of the covalent bond between two monomers by the addition of water >>>>>Diversity in polymers comes from the variation in the arrangement of the monomers. FOUR CLASSES OF MACROMOLECULES Macromolecule type Monomer type Linkage CARBOHYDRATES SUGARS GLYCOSIDIC
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LIPIDS FATTY ACIDS ESTER PROTEINS AMINO ACIDS PEPTIDE NUCLEIC ACIDS NUCLEOTIDES PHOSPHODIESTER Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides - 5.1.1 >>>> Carbohydrates are used as fuels and building material (wood) ---Carbohydrates Organic molecules made of sugars and their polymers *monosaccharide *Disaccharides *Polysaccharides -Monomers of simple sugars are called monosaccharides. ---Monosaccharide Simplest carbohydrates General structure of carbohydrates (see fig 5.3) 1) Each carbon has a hydroxyl group (-OH) and at least one hydrogen (-H) attached to it for except one carbon, which has a carbonyl group instead of the hydroxyl. aldose has aldehyde functional group or ketose. Has a ketone functional group *OSE* endings usually mean carbohydrates 2) The size of the carbon skeleton Most common are 3, 5, and 6 carbons long Some examples of common sugars: ALDOSES KETOSES TRIOSE (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) 3-carbon Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone PENTOSE (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) 5-carbon Ribose Ribulose HEXOSE (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) 6-carbon Glucose Fructose 3) Enantiomers exist for each asymmetric carbon * C6H12O6 can be glucose or galactose 4) In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides with 5 or more carbons in the skeleton form ring structures (see fig 5.4).
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