Hydrogen Orbitals and Atomic Configurations

Hydrogen Orbitals and Atomic Configurations - Hydrogen...

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Hydrogen Orbitals and Atomic Configurations Ch 301 B. A. Rowland September 10-12, 2008
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A Review… Last time we discussed the particle in a box. We saw that the TISE gave us a quantized wave solution. Now we apply that to the hydrogen atom to generate its wave function. We discussed electron spin briefly. This is another manifestation of quantum matter. The spin is what gives the periodic table its structure.
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Hydrogen Orbitals When the TISE is solved for the hydrogen atom, a series of solutions characterized by three quantum numbers ( n , l , m l ) appear. n is the principle quantum number . It tells you the energy level of the orbital. As n increases the energy increases and the average distance away from the nucleus increases. l is the angular momentum quantum number . It can take on any value 0. .( n- 1). It describes the shape of the orbital. m l is the magnetic quantum number . It can take on any value – l...l , zero inclusive. It describes the orientation of the suborbital around the nucleus.
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Probabilities and Orbitals An s orbital is shown to the right. When we draw orbitals, what we are really drawing is a boundary for finding the probability of an electron. We must draw this boundary because the probability of finding the electron at very large distances from the nucleus is very small, but never exactly zero. Within this boundary, you are guaranteed to find the electron 90% of the time. This is not an orbit since the Uncertainty Principle makes it impossible to exactly specify the orbit of the electron. Will have nodes where the probability of finding an electron is exactly zero.
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s orbitals s orbitals correspond to l = 0. Have nodes corresponding to ( n – 1).l They are spherical in shape. Can only hold 2 electrons with opposite spin. Electrons in the s-orbital can penetrate to the nucleus of the atom (important for shielding). These are the valence electrons for the two columns of metals on the LHS of the periodic table.
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p orbitals correspond to l = 1. Have nodes corresponding to ( n – 1). They are dumbbell shaped. Each suborbital can hold two electrons of opposite spins (for a total of 6 electrons per p orbital). m l values are -1, 0, +1. This tells you which suborbital the electrons reside in. Not as good at penetrating to the nucleus as s orbitals. These are the valence orbitals
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2008 for the course CH 301 taught by Professor Fakhreddine/lyon during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Hydrogen Orbitals and Atomic Configurations - Hydrogen...

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