bio9

Biology, 6th Edition

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Greg Steinberg Mrs. Wierzbowski AP Biology Chapter 6 Cellular Respiration A. Principles of Energy Harvest a. Degradation i. Enzymes decompose organic molecules to particles with lesser energy. ii. The release of this energy is used to drive the cell’s activity. iii. Some of this energy is released as heat, which is useless to the cell. b. Fermentation i. Fermentation is the degradation of sugar without the use of oxygen. ii. This is a catabolic pathway, energy is released. c. Cellular Respiration i. This is the most efficient catabolic pathway. ii. Oxygen is used as a reactant with organic material. iii. Mitochondria are the center for cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells. iv. The products of cellular respiration are CO2, Water, and energy which is taken and used by the cell. v. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuel for cellular respiration. vi. Cellular respiration drives the ATP cycle; ATP is the cause of actions in a cell. d. ATP Cycle i. ATP has very high energy. When a phosphate is released, a jolt of energy is released as well. The phosphate released might bond with another compound to help another reaction. e. Oxidation-reduction i. During a chemical reaction, when electrons are moved among atoms, this is a redox reaction. ii. When an atom loses electrons, this process is known as oxidation. iii. When an atom gains electrons, this process is known as reduction.
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