bio11

Biology, 6th Edition

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Mrs. Wierzbowski AP Biology Chapter 11 Cell Communication A. An Overview of Cell Signaling a. The Evolution of Cell Signaling. i. Some cells identify their mate with chemical signals. ii. These types of cells have two mates, a and (a). iii. The a sex secretes a chemical signal that the (a) receptor picks up. iv. This process is called signal-transduction. b. Communication i. Cells also release chemical signals to bind to receptors to other cells that are not near it. ii. Cells that are close to each other may release a local regulator . iii. Multiple cells can receive growth promoters at the same time. iv. Another communication is within nerve cells. Nerve cells signal too other nerve cells (via diffusion) that are nearly touching. An electrical signal triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synapses of the nerve cells. This closeness allows cells to signal each other without causing unwanted signals. v. Hormones are used in animal and plant cells to trigger cells over very long distances. Endocrine cells released hormones into the bloodstream. vi. Cells also my signal each other with direct contact. Signaling chemicals dissolve in the cytosol and can freely be exchanged between these tight junctions. vii. Signals must be recognized by receptors on the cell. The signal must then be transuded so the cell can use it. c. Three stages i. There are three stages of cell signaling, reception, transduction, and response. 1. Reception – The detection of the signal released from another cell. When the signal binds to a receptor protein, it is “detected”. 2. Transduction – The binding of the molecule changes the receptor protein to initiate this process. Transduction converts the signal into a signal that can stimulate a cell response. Transduction can sometimes occur in a single step, but usually it takes multiple steps known as a pathway. 3.
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This document was uploaded on 03/17/2008.

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bio11 - Greg Steinberg Mrs. Wierzbowski AP Biology Chapter...

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