Ch13BriefOutline - CHAPTER 13 – Measurement and Scaling...

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CHAPTER 13 – Measurement and Scaling Concepts – Brief Outline Zikmund Chapter Content Deciding What to measure – scaling concepts, operational definitions, and rules of measurement Type of Scales – properties of nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales and their statistical treatment Index Measures – composites to measure a single variable—several measures combined to create some type of index Criteria of Good Measurement – various types and ways of assessing reliability, validity, and sensitivity Deciding What to Measure Every Day Life – the measurement of many things that concern us on a daily basis are so standardized and routine—distance, height, weight, speed, blood pressure, temperature, profit, net worth, and so on—that they seem quite familiar and automatic. Business Research – in contrast, with business research, we are frequently dealing with: Things we do not know how to measure —sincerity, integrity, customer loyalty Things where we have many choices of measurement alternatives —such things as feelings, attitudes, brand awareness, intention to purchase, morale, job satisfaction, etc. Objective measurement —sales volume, stock price, accident rate, grievances, etc. Subjective measurement —rating or ranking scales based on personal judgment Choosing – in order for us to decide what to measure, we must be concerned with Relevance – whether the measures chosen are pertinent or germane to the particular research objectives o Example – consumer rankings of product preference don’t measure intention to buy Precision – how accurate or rigorous must the measurements be based on the critical nature of the research o Example – greater precision is needed to decide to invest $100MM than $10K Reliability – what degree of consistency is required for the purpose of the research—i.e., consistent and trustworthy must the chosen measures be o Example - what is the acceptable level of error in measuring employee attitudes Validity – do the selected measures measure what they are supposed to measure—i.e., do they have a convincing association with the concepts being measured o Example – do IQ scores measure intelligence, scholastic aptitude, or cultural background Before measurement – Because of such concerns, before measuring anything, the business researcher must begin by addressing three issues Concepts relevant to the problem – defining at an abstract level the concepts to be measured o Example – scholastic aptitude is an abstract concept related to academic performance Ch13BriefOutline.doc 1
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Operational definitions – deciding how to translate an abstract concept into something than can be concretely measured o Example – the concept of scholastic aptitude can be translated operationally into IQ scores, GPAs, scores on achievement exams, and so on—things that can be measured Rules of measurement – guides that tell the researcher what to do
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2008 for the course BUAD 259 taught by Professor Phares during the Spring '07 term at Mary Washington.

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Ch13BriefOutline - CHAPTER 13 – Measurement and Scaling...

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