Ch9BriefOutline - CHAPTER 9 Survey Research Overview Brief...

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CHAPTER 9 – Survey Research Overview – Brief Outline Zikmund Chapter Content Nature of surveys – objectives, advantages and disadvantages Errors in Survey Research – two broad types – random sampling error and systematic error Random Sampling Error – unavoidable but can be estimated Systematic Error – two classifications—respondent error and administrative error Respondent Error – various types of respondent error Administrative Error – various types of administrative error Classification of Survey Research Methods – structural and temporal distinctions Total Quality Management – uses of surveys in TQM programs Nature of Surveys - Terminology Surveys ask respondents for information—primary data—using verbal or written questionnaires administered face-to-face, by mail, or other media. Survey – a research method in which information is gathered from a representative sample of people, communicating with them by means of a questionnaire or interview. Sample survey – formal term for survey—indicates that the purpose is to get a representative sample of the target population. Respondent – a person who answers an interviewer’s questions or provides answers to written questions in a self-administered survey. Primary data – data gathered and assembled specifically for the research project at hand. Survey objectives – most surveys are descriptive research—to describe what’s happening or to learn the reasons for something—to identify the characteristics of a particular group, measure attitudes, describe behavior patterns, etc. Advantages of surveys Flexibility – surveys are easily adaptable to a wide range of research objectives— demographics, consumer preferences, attitudes, intentions, and so on Accuracy – well constructed questionnaires and carefully selected samples yield generally small margins of error Cost – depending upon the method used, surveys can be relatively inexpensive compared with other types of research Efficiency – compared with other types of research, surveys can gather huge amounts of data in a relatively short period of time Speed – surveys take relatively little time to collect data Disadvantages of surveys Bias – faulty sampling procedures can skew the data and produce inaccurate results o Example – the Literary Digest poll in 1936 contacted only voters who had telephones and failed in predicting the outcome of the presidential election Untrained interviewers – inadequate selection and training of interviewers can lead to such sources of error as incompetence and cheating Ch9BriefOutline.doc 1
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Misinterpretation – poor results because of misinterpretation of the questions by respondents Poor questions – poorly worded questions cause loss of reliability and validity—differently worded questions mean different things to different people Error in Surveys
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