Biology, 6th Edition

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Greg Steinberg Mrs. Wierzbowski AP Biology Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles A. Introduction to Heredity a. Legacy of the Genome i. A child’s genome comes from it’s parents. ii. Genes are sections of DNA. iii. Cells translate the sequence of DNA into a language the cell can use (amino acids – proteins). iv. Heredity comes from the transfer and replication of DNA. v. A specific gene’s location on the chain of DNA is called its locus. b. Sexual and Asexual Reproduction i. In asexual reproduction, only one organism passes it’s genome to its offspring. ii. Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence. iii. Sexual reproduction yields a more variation in the offspring. iv. Sexual reproduction yields offspring that are “blends” of their two parents. B. The Role of Meiosis in Sexual Life Cycles i. A life cycle is an organism’s conception to its offspring. b. Human Life Cycle i. A somatic cell is a non-sexual cell (46 chromosomes). ii. Every chromosome is different inside a cell. iii. Every chromosome in the somatic cell has a matching copy. These are known as a homologous pair.
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