Chap+55+Ecosystem+Dynamics

Chap+55+Ecosystem+Dynamics - Trophic cascades The Human...

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Dynamics of Ecosystems 1) Energy constantly enters and is lost. 2) Chemicals move through biogeochemical cycles An ecosystem includes all the organisms that live in a particular place plus the abiotic environ- ments in which they live
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BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES THE WATER CYCLE X deforestation
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THE CARBON CYCLE
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THE NITROGEN CYCLE N 2 nitrogen fixation ammonification denitrification
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THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
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Ecosystem are fragile and cycles easily broken: The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
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Energy in the eco- system flows through trophic levels ( trophos = feeder) Food chains and food webs Gross (total) and Net (available to heterotrophs) Primary Productivity vary in different ecosystems (tropical forest = 3000 g/m 2 / yr; desert = 90 g/m 2 /yr) Secondary Productivity is an order of magnitude lower
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Energy in Food Chains: A food chain in Cayuga Lake explains why food chains are usually limited to four successive trophic levels Ecological Pyramids reflect various parameters
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Interactions among different trophic levels:
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Unformatted text preview: Trophic cascades The Human Effect: I have lived to see state after state extirpate its wolves. I have watched the faces of many a new wolfless mountain, and seen the south-facing slopes wrinkle with a maze a new deer trails. I have seen every edible bush and seedling browsed, first to anemic desuetude, and then to death. I have seen every edible tree defoliated to the height of a saddle horn. Aldo Leopold, The Sand County Almanac Trophic Cascades: Top Down, and Bottom Up Biodiversity promotes ecosystem stability: Effects of Species Richness Factors Promoting Species Richness ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY CLIMATE SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY Biogeographic Patterns of Species Diversity Species Richness follows a species diversity clines Theories: Evolutionary Age Higher Productivity Predictability Predation Spatial Heterogeneity...
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2008 for the course BIOL 1720 taught by Professor Jagadeeswaran during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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Chap+55+Ecosystem+Dynamics - Trophic cascades The Human...

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