Exam8 - Exam 8 Chapter 52Behavioral biology Many behavioral...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Exam 8 Chapter 52—Behavioral biology Many behavioral patterns are innate o Approaches to the study of behavior Behavior can be defined as the way an animal responds to stimuli in its environment Proximate causation defines how something works, while ultimate causation addresses why something works Innate (instinctive) behaviors were argued to be the result of preprogrammed nervous system pathways under genetic control o Behavior genetics Experimental evidence suggests that some behaviors are hereditary, governed by genes passed from one generation to the next Additional experimentation has identified specific genes that may be associated with behavioral control Learning influences behavior o Nonassociative learning and conditioning Learning occurs when animals alter their behavior as a result of previous experiments Nonassociative learning, such as habituation , does not require the animal to form an association, while associative learning (classical or operant) requires development of an association between stimuli or between a stimulus and a response Many experiments have suggested that learning is possible only within the boundaries set by instinct o The development of behavior Behavioral biologist now recognize that behavior has both genetic and learned components Imprinting occurs when a maturing animal forms social attachments to other individuals or forms preferences that will influence behavior later in life; it is most often successful during a sensitive phase. Experiments with song-learning in birds have suggested that in some cases the genetic template is selective, and learning must also play a prominent role o Animal cognition Recent studies have shown compelling evidence of cognition in several species of animals including chimpanzees and ravens o Migratory behavior Birds and other animals navigate (setting a bearing and following it) by looking at the sun and the stars, and potentially by detecting magnetic fields as well Communication is a key element of many animal behaviors o Courtship Page 1 of 9
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Exam 8 Courtship signals are often species-specific, limiting communication to members of the same species Different signals are often species-specific, limiting communication to members of the same species Different signals provide different levels of information about the sender, and the level of specificity relates to the function of the signal o Communication in social groups Social organisms utilize many modes of communication, including alarm calls, alarm pheromones, trail pheromones, and a dance language Upon close examination, the complexity of human languages is in fact a superficial difference, and all languages share many basic structural similarities Evolutionary forces shape behavior o Behavioral ecology Behavioral ecology is the study of how natural selection shapes behavior o Foraging behavior Optimal foraging theory states that natural selection produces
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 09/16/2008 for the course BIOL 1722 taught by Professor Jagdeeswaran during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

Page1 / 9

Exam8 - Exam 8 Chapter 52Behavioral biology Many behavioral...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online