chapt55 - Population Ecology Chapter 55 1 Environmental...

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1 Population Ecology Chapter 55
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2 Environmental Challenge Ecology: the study of how organisms relate to one another and to their environments Abiotic: non-living; wind, temperature Key elements of the environment: Temperature Water Sunlight Soil
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3 Homeostasis : a steady-state internal environment regardless of external environment Beetle is catching water to help live in a dry environment Environmental Challenge
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4 Conformers: conform to the environment in which they live, their bodies adopting the temperature, salinity and other aspects of their surroundings Short and long term Coping with a range of living conditions Physiological, morphological and behavioral coping mechanisms Environmental Challenge
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5 Physiological responses Sweat: evaporative heat loss High altitudes: lower oxygen; adaptations Environmental Challenge
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6 Morphological capabilities Endotherms: maintain constant internal temperature Adaptations that minimize energy expenditure Thick coats during the winter Wolf’s fur 3xs thicker in winter for insulation purposes Environmental Challenge
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7 Behavioral responses Moving from one habitat to another Maintain body temperature Going into the sun when cold Going into the shade when hot Spadefoot toads Burrow down in the sand to avoid the heat Environmental Challenge
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8 Morphological and Behavioral Adaptations Environmental Challenge
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9 Natural selection leads to evolutionary adaptation to environmental conditions Compare closely related species that live in different environments Allen’s rule of reduced surface area: Mammals from colder climates have shorter ears and limbs Desert frogs: evolved a greatly reduced rate of water loss through their skin Environmental Challenge
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10 Populations Populations: groups of individuals of the same species in one place 3 characteristics of population ecology Population range: area throughout which a population occurs Pattern of spacing of individuals How population changes in size through time
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11 Populations Range Most species have limited geographic range Devil’s hole pupfish lives in a single spring in southern Nevada
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12 Populations Organisms must be adapted for the environment in which they occur Each population has its own requirements Predators, competitors or parasites may prevent a population from occupying an area Ranges undergo expansion and contraction
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13 Populations Altitude shifts in distributions of trees
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14 Populations The human effect Humans alter the environment and some species have altered their range to areas not previously occupied
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15 Populations Dispersal mechanisms Lizards colonized distant islands due to individuals or eggs floating or drifting on vegetation Seeds of plants disperse in many ways
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16 Populations
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2008 for the course BIOL 1722 taught by Professor Jagdeeswaran during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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chapt55 - Population Ecology Chapter 55 1 Environmental...

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