Biology, 6th Edition

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Greg Steinberg AP Biology Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life A. Historical Context for Evolutionary Theory a. Previous Beliefs i. Darwinian beliefs were radical and looked upon as a poor theory. ii. Darwin’s belief went against many other thoughts on the origin of life. iii. Plato and Aristotle believed in completely different ideas than the theory of evolution. iv. They believed that each life form was arranged on a ladder called the scale of nature. They believed that this was permanently fixed to their rung on the ladder. v. The Judeo-Christian view was a creator that made every life form. The study of this creator was called natural theology. vi. Carolus Linnaeus developed taxonomy, which named and classified each discovered species. vii. Darwin used the taxonomy of Linnaeus to describe his point in “The Origin of Species”. b. Cuvier, Fossils, and Catastrophism i. Fossils are impressions of organisms that are pressed into rock. ii. Most of the time, fossils are found in sedimentary rock. iii. Paleontology is the study of fossils. iv. Paleontology reveals that new organisms appear and disappear in different stratum. v. Cuvier said that catastrophism was the cause for overlapping stratum. vi. James Hutton said that the geology of the Earth was formed by geological events. vii. Hutton said that “Canyons were formed by rivers that eroded rock”, this was known as gradualism – everything was formed by a gradual process, not all at once. viii.
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bio22 - Greg Steinberg AP Biology Chapter 22 Descent with...

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