bio31

Biology, 6th Edition

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Greg Steinberg AP Biology FUNGI Chapter 31 A. Introduction to the fungi a. Absorptive Nutrition i. Fungi are heterotrophs and require their nutrients by absorption. ii. Fungi digest their food by secreting a powerful enzyme called exoenzymes. b. Surface Area i. Hyphae are composed of tiny filaments. ii. Hyphae surround plasma membranes and cytoplasm iii. Hyphae form an interwoven mat called a mycelium. iv. The mycelium is a giant bed that is sub terrain. v. Mycelium can be miles long. vi. Fungi are multicellular with Hyphae divided into walls called septa. vii. The fungi structure usually dictates its function. c. Fungi Reproduction i. Fungi reproduce by releasing spores that can reproduce sexually or asexually. ii. The number of spores is huge, sometimes in the trillions. iii. The spores are carried by wind or water, and produce mycelium after germination. d. Heterokaryotic Stage i. Most fungi are present in their haploid form. ii. A heterokaryon is when two mycelium cells fuse to form a diploid cell with an entirely new genome. iii. The spore combination occurs as a process of plasmogamy or karyogamy.
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