bio35

Biology, 6th Edition

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Greg Steinberg AP Biology Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth A. The Plant Body a. Structure i. The plant body is affected by not only genes, but also environmental factors. ii. Plant species evolve to new species that are better adapted for their environment. iii. Plants also adapt in their lifetime, to move towards a light source. iv. Plants functional adaptations are even quicker than structural ones. b. Plant Organs i. Plants of three organs, roots, stems, and leaves. ii. Plant organs are composed of different types of plant tissues. iii. The monocots and the dicots are the two main groups of plants iv. The monocots and dicots vary in their anatomical structure and function. v. Plants need soil for minerals and other nutrients, but CO2 from the air is their main source of Carbon. vi. Plants have a root system and an aerial shoot system, which helps them intake minerals and CO2. vii. Both systems work with each other for survival. c. The Root System i. Roots have many important structural and functional things. ii. Roots anchor the plant to the ground, as well as absorb minerals and water, and storage. iii. Monocots usually have a fibrous root system that increased surface area. iv. Dicots have a taproot , which has 1 large, vertical root which produces smaller lateral roots. v. Tiny root hairs increase the surface area of the root system. vi. Adventitious roo ts are roots that grow above ground from a stem. d. The Shoot System i. The shoot system consists of stems and leaves . ii. Stems are made from nodes , which is the point where leaves are attached. iii. Internodes are the longer sections in between the nodes. iv. In between the leaf and the stem, at the node, is an axillary bud . v. The terminal bud is the bud at the end of the growing stem. vi. Terminal buds prevent the axillary buds from growing, as the plant wants to grow taller, not fatter. vii. If the plant is restricted from growing taller, it then starts to grow the axillary buds out and grow wider.
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viii. This is an evolutionary phenomenon known as apical dominance . ix. Leaves are the main place for photosynthesis to occur. x. Leaves consist of a blade and a petiole , which is a flat part and a small stem running through it. xi. Monocots and Dicots range different in the vein layout of their leaves. Monocots have parallel veins, while dicots have branched networks of veins e. Plant Organs i. Plant organs are made from three tissue systems .
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