bio40

Biology, 6th Edition

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Greg Steinberg AP Biology Chapter 40 An Introduction to Animal Structure and Function A. Functional Anatomy: An Overview a. Correlation of Structure and Function i. The study of the structure of an organism is known as anatomy . ii. The study of the functions of an organism is known as physiology . iii. “Functional Anatomy” combines both anatomy and physiology. iv. Atoms make up molecules, molecules make up cells, cells make up tissues (groups of similar cells), tissues make up organs, and organs make up organ systems. b. Tissues i. Groups of cells that is similar in structure and function. ii. Epithelial Tissue 1. Covers the outside body and lines organs. 2. Epithelial cells are bound by tight junctions which enables them to be close together. 3. The epithelial cells are attached to a base membrane on one end, and the open ends are exposed to fluid or air. 4. Simple epithelial tissue uses a single layer of cells, while a stratified epithelial tissue uses multiple layers of smaller cells. 5. The shapes of the cell vary; they can be cuboidal, columnar, or squamous: Cube, column, tile-like. 6. Glandular epithelial tissue secretes chemicals. iii. Connective Tissue 1. Connects and supports other tissues. 2. Connective tissues have a large cellular matrix with scattered cells. 3. There are 3 kinds of fibers; collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers. 4. Collagenous fibers are made of a protein called collagen which is non-elastic and keeps skin onto bone.
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