Psych170a-Lecture1-History-Fall2008

Psych170a-Lecture1-History-Fall2008 - Psychology 170:...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 170: Fundamentals of Neuroscience Assistant Professor, Dept. of Psychology Glenn Schafe, Ph.D. glenn.schafe@yale.edu Office Hours: By Appointment. Office: Dunham Lab 204 Teaching Fellow patrick.orr@yale.edu Office: Dunham Lab 103A Phone: (203) 4363968 Office Hours: By appointment Patrick Orr Course Structure Grading will consist of 5 inclass exams, and 1 final exam The 5 inclass exams will consist of a Each exam will count 1/6 of your final grade combination of multiple choice, matching, shortanswer and essay questions The final exam will be multiple choice & will be cumulative Material from lectures will be emphasized! EXAM Schedule Inclass exams: Thursday, 9/18 EXAM #1 Tuesday, 10/7 EXAM #2 Thursday, 10/23 EXAM #3 Thursday, 11/13 EXAM #4 Thursday, 12/4 EXAM #5 Monday, 12/15 @ 9AM Final exam: Exam MakeUp Policy You will not be allowed to make up exams unless there is a convincing reason, backed up by a Dean's excuse If you know that you will miss an exam, you need to contact me BEFORE the exam is given All exams must be made up with 1 week of the scheduled date of the exam Review Sessions These sessions will be provided just before each inclass exam. They will be led by Pat, and are optional There will be 5 review sessions: Wednesday, 9/17 K207; 78 PM Monday, 10/6 K207; 78 PM Wednesday, 10/22 K207; 78 PM Wednesday, 11/12 K207; 78 PM Wednesday, 12/3 K207; 78 PM Textbook: "Physiology of Behavior", th 9 Edition By Neil Carlson Allyn & Bacon, 2004 Optional Text: "Study Guide for Physiology of Behavior", th 9 Edition By Mary Carlson & Neil Carlson Allyn & Bacon, 2004 What is Neuroscience? Neuroscience is concerned with the study of the nervous system, and the biological basis of behavior & mental phenomena Psychology & Cognitive Science Biophysics Neuroscience Genetics Molecular Biology There will be 5 themes covered in this Course Overview class: Basics of Neuroscience Sensory & Motor Systems Motivational Systems Memory, Cognition & Emotion Clinical Disorders Basics of Neuroscience: How Does The Brain Work? Structure & Functions of Neurons What is a neuron? What are the different types of neurons? How do nerve cells communicate? Structure & Basics of Neuroscience: How Does The Brain Work? Function of the Nervous System The Central Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System What is connected to Basics of Neuroscience: How Does The Brain Work? Neurotransmitter Systems Basics of psycho pharmacology What are the different types of neurotransmitters? How do different classes of drugs affect the brain? Sensory & Motor Systems: How Does it All Get In & Out? Sensory Systems How does information in the outside world get into the brain? The 5 senses: Vision, Hearing, Taste, Smell, & Touch Motor Systems Sensory & Motor Systems: How Does it All Get In & Out? How do we move? How are thoughts translated into actions by the brain? Movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's Disease) Sleep & Motivational Systems: What Drives Us To Do Things? Biological Rhythms What is the biological basis for sleep & waking? What is the function of sleep? How do "biological clocks" influence our behavior? Sexual & Motivational Systems: What Drives Us To Do Things? Reproductive Behavior How do male & female brains develop? What is the biological basis of sexual behavior? Is there a biological basis for gender identity & sexual orientation? Ingestive Motivational Systems: What Drives Us To Do Things? Behaviors What is the biological basis of drinking, eating, & appetite? Does obesity have a biological basis? Learning & Memory, Cognition & Emotion: Why Are We Who We Are? Memory How are memories made in the brain? What brain structures store different kinds of memories? What goes wrong in memory disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's Disease) Memory, Cognition & Emotion: Why Are We Who We Are? Emotions How are emotions represented in the brain, including fear, anger, aggression, and love? What is the biological basis of emotion regulation? Clinical Disorders: How Can It All Go Wrong? Schizophrenia, Affective, & Anxiety Disorders What goes wrong in the brain during mental illness? What are the mechanisms of drugs that are used to treat mental illness (e.g. Prozac, Haldol, Valium, etc) Clinical Disorders: How Can It All Go Wrong? Drug Addiction How do drugs affect the brain? What is the biological basis of drug addiction, craving, & relapse? The Movies! We will watch 3 movies throughout the semester, which are designed to illustrate the "realword" application of the topics we are studying: "Brain Transplant" 10/2 "Sex Unknown" 10/16 "The Forgetting" 11/4 Who Should Take This Class? Neuroscience Track majors! Psychology majors with some biology background who have a strong interest in understanding more about the biological basis of behavior Students in related disciplines (e.g. Biology, Anthropology, or PreMed) who desire to understand more about the nervous system and how the brain controls behavior Everyone is welcome! Who Might Not Want To Take This Class? Those individuals with little to no Biology background Those individuals who would like to know Not a formal prerequisite, but it certainly helps! more about the brain, but prefer to have only a casual understanding of it See instead PSYC 120 "Brain & Thought: An Introduction to the Human Brain" Or PSYC 160 "Human Neuroscience" PSYC 170 vs. 160? Both Neuroscience Track feeder courses PSYC 170 much more of a "traditional" neuroscience class, with emphasis on mechanisms of brain function as they relate to behavior Survey of both animal and human work PSYC 160 focuses exclusively on the human brain Restricted to methods (e.g. fMRI, scalp recordings, naturally occurring lesions) that can only be used in human research Tips for Success Read the assigned material in the text before coming to class Begin studying for each exam well before the exam date Attend the Review Sessions Use the Study Guide Come and talk to us if you don't fully understand something! The Biology of Behavior & Mind: A (Brief) Historical Perspective Early Civilizations Many early civilizations, including the Egyptians, Indians, Chinese, and Greeks, believed that the mind was in the heart Aristotle believed that brain served merely to "cool the passions of the heart" The Greek physicians Hippocrates (B.C. 460370) and Galen (A.D. 130200), however, both believed that the mind was in the brain "Men ought to know that from nothing else Hippocrates (460370 B.C.) but the brain comes joys, delights, laughter and sports, and sorrows, griefs, despondency, and lamentations. And by this, in an especial manner, we acquire wisdom and knowledge, and see and hear and know what are foul and what are fair, what are bad and what are good, what are sweet and what are unsavory...And by the same organ we become mad and delirious, and fears and terrors assail us" (Hippocrates, 1952 translation, p. 159) Ren Descartes (c. 1650) French mathematician & philosopher Conceptualized the "reflex arc" as an automatic, stimulusresponse reaction Proposed that body was composed of a complex network of nerves connecting the muscles to the brain and vice versa "Animal spirits" flowed within the nerves Descartes' Dualism Descartes reflex arc concept was meant to explain animal behavior and certain types of human automatic reactions, but... Descartes believed the mind was not reflexive! The mind, or the soul, was a voluntary, non material entity that controlled the muscles and actions at will and could not be explained in mechanistic terms This distinction between the physical body and the nonphysical mind is called dualism Dualism vs. Monism Dualism is the belief in the dual nature of reality. Mind and body are separate entities; the body is made up of ordinary matter, but the mind is not. To a dualist, the mind cannot be reduced to matter and energy. Monism is the belief that everything in the universe consists of matter and energy and that the mind is a phenomenon produced by the workings of the nervous system. Descartes conceived of the body as one large hydraulic system, with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) providing the fluid necessary to move the limbs and inflate the muscles The "mind" directed the muscles to move by interacting with the pineal gland, which was thought to direct the movements of the CSF through the body Descartes' Brain Theory John Locke (c. 1690) Believed that the mind was a "tabula rasa" at birth, and that the mind was acquired gradually through experience with the world Believed that sensations that occur together will become associated such that if one of these sensations later recurs it will automatically trigger the other "Ideas", say Locke, are nothing more than sensations that have been associated together (...very mechanistic theory of mind!) Johannes Mller & Pierre Flourens (c. 1830) Mller was a German physiologist who proposed the Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies, which held that while all nerves basically work the same, we perceive that activity differently depending on the region of the brain that receives the signals Flourens, a French physiologist, developed the experimental ablation technique, which involves removing parts of the brains of animals and observing the effects on behavior Paul Broca (c. 1860) French surgeon Performed an autopsy on a patient who had lost the ability to speak as the result of a stroke Discovered that a portion of the cerebral cortex on the left side of the brain is necessary for speech (now known as Broca's area) Camillo Golgi & Santiago Ramn y Cajal (c. 1880) Often considered the "fathers of modern neuroscience" Conducted detailed anatomical studies of neurons and how they are connected in the brain using the Golgi technique Shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1906 Ivan Pavlov (c. 1900) Russian physiologist Won Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1904 for his studies of digestive processes Discovered and popularized the concept of the "conditioned reflex" as a way to study associations in the brain Sir Charles Sherrington (c. 1920) British physiologist Won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1932 for his studies of spinal reflexes Coined the terms "neuron" and "synapse", the space between nerve cells where chemical communication takes place Alan Hodgkin & Andrew Huxley (c. 1950) British physiologists Conducted detailed studies of nerve conduction in the squid giant axon Shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1963 The Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research Charles Darwin (c. 1859) Developed the theory of natural selection to explain the origin of species Emphasized that every feature of an organism (e.g. structure, coloration, behavior) had functional significance Maintains that mammals are descended from a common ancestor, which suggests a functional equivalence of brain and behavior Comparative Neuroanatomy Mammal Brains Monkey Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Laboratory Animals Under the U.S. Animal Welfare Act (1966), each university has an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) that oversees all animal research For more information, go to www.iacuc.org All research projects must be approved by the IACUC The IACUC ensures that all lab animals are properly housed and that all research is done in a manner that minimizes pain and distress, while maximizing scientific gain The IACUC is also charged with verifying that no reasonable alternatives exist to the use of live animals for research Animal Research....Some Facts Of all the animals killed in the US every year, less than 1% are used in research and education 95% of the total number of animals used for medical and scientific inquiry in the United States are rodents rats and mice specifically bred for this purpose Dogs, cats, and nonhuman primates together account for less than 1 percent of all animals used annually in medical research The total number of dogs and cats used in research represents about .02% of all animals killed by automobiles and euthanized in pounds each year most killed by automobiles or in pounds, while others are used for food and clothing Reading for Next Class Carlson, Chapter 2 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2008 for the course PSYC 170 taught by Professor Schafe during the Fall '08 term at Yale.

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