Chemistry Nomenclature - NOMENCLATURE It is important that...

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NOMENCLATURE It is important that you be able to recognize compounds by both their names and formulas. The following is one approach to learning the nomenclature of inorganic compounds. This is a systematic approach and is somewhat different from most text books. There are many ways to approach learning the naming and formulas for inorganic compounds. Most inorganic compounds can be thought of as ionic in nature, consisting of a cation(positive ion) and an anion(negative ion). When the compounds are named, the cation is named first and the anion last. For example, the compound NaCl consists of the cation Na + and the anion Cl - and is called sodium chloride. CATIONS The primary cations that are encountered are the metals, the hydrogen ion (H + ) and the ammonium ion (NH 4 + ). These cations can be divided into two groups, the elements, which produce only one cation (have only one valence state) and those elements, which produce more that one cation (have multiple valence states). If the element has only one cation (valence state), the ion is just given the name of the element. The common cations of this type are given below: Univalent Bivalent Trivalent Cation Name Cation Name Cation Name H + hydrogen Be 2+ beryllium Al 3+ aluminum Li + lithium Mg 2+ magnesium Na + sodium Ca 2+ calcium K + potassium Sr 2+ strontium Rb + rubidium Ba 2+ barium Cs + cesium Zn 2+ zinc Ag + silver Cd 2+ cadmium NH 4 + ammonium You should not memorize these, but should note a pattern, all the univalent metals are in Group 1 of the periodic table, bivalent are mostly in Group 2 and aluminum is in Group 3. The elements with more than one cation are traditionally named by adding the suffix- ous to the root name of the element for the lower valence state and the suffix - ic for the higher valence state. For example, Cu + is cuprous and Cu 2+ is cupric. The problem with this system is that there are a number of elements with more than two valence states, and the system breaks down. To rectify this problem the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) developed a simplified system. The cation is named using the name of the element followed by the charge in Roman numerals in parentheses.
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2008 for the course CHEM 01 taught by Professor Keller during the Spring '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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Chemistry Nomenclature - NOMENCLATURE It is important that...

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