ch04 - CHAPTER 4: POLYMER STRUCTURES ISSUES TO ADDRESS....

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Chapter 4 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. What are the general structural and chemical characteristics of polymer molecules? What are some of the common polymeric materials, and how do they differ chemically? How is the crystalline state in polymers different from that in metals and ceramics ? CHAPTER 4: POLYMER STRUCTURES
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Chapter 4 - 2 What is a Polymer? Poly mer many repeat unit Adapted from Fig. 4.2, C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H Polyethylene (PE) Cl Cl Cl C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) H H H H H H Polypropylene (PP) C C C C C C CH 3 H H CH 3 CH 3 H repeat unit repeat unit repeat unit
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Chapter 4 - 3 Ancient Polymers Originally natural polymers were used Wood – Rubber Cotton – Wool Leather – Silk Oldest known uses Rubber balls used by Incas Noah used pitch (a natural polymer) for the ark
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Chapter 4 - 4 Polymer Composition Most polymers are hydrocarbons – i.e., made up of H and C Saturated hydrocarbons Each carbon singly bonded to four other atoms Example: • Ethane, C 2 H 6 C C H H H H H H
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Chapter 4 - 5
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Chapter 4 - 6 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Double & triple bonds somewhat unstable – can form new bonds – Double bond found in ethylene or ethene - C 2 H 4 – Triple bond found in acetylene or ethyne - C 2 H 2 C C H H H H C C H H
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Chapter 4 - 7 Isomerism Isomerism two compounds with same chemical formula can have quite different structures for example: C 8 H 18 normal-octane 2,4-dimethylhexane C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 = H 3 C CH CH 3 CH 2 CH CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 H 3 C CH 2 CH 3 ( ) 6
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Chapter 4 - 8 Polymerization and Polymer Chemistry Free radical polymerization Initiator : example - benzoyl peroxide C H H O O C H H C H H O 2 C C H H H H monomer (ethylene) R + free radical R C C H H H H initiation R C C H H H H C C H H H H + R C C H H H H C C H H H H propagation dimer R = 2
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ch04 - CHAPTER 4: POLYMER STRUCTURES ISSUES TO ADDRESS....

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