ch02 - CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO ADDRESS....

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Chapter 2 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. What promotes bonding? What types of bonds are there? What properties are inferred from bonding? CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES
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Chapter 2 - 2 Atomic Structure (Freshman Chem.) atom – electrons 9.11 x 10 -31 kg protons neutrons atomic number = # of protons in nucleus of atom = # of electrons of neutral species A [=] atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C Atomic wt = wt of 6.022 x 10 23 molecules or atoms 1 amu/atom = 1g/mol C 12.011 H 1.008 etc. } 1.67 x 10 -27 kg
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Chapter 2 - 3 Atomic Structure Valence electrons determine all of the following properties 1) Chemical 2) Electrical 3) Thermal 4) Optical
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Chapter 2 - 4 Electronic Structure Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties. This means that electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability. Each orbital at discrete energy level is determined by quantum numbers . Quantum # Designation n = principal (energy level-shell) K , L , M , N , O (1, 2, 3, etc.) l = subsidiary (orbitals) s , p , d , f (0, 1, 2, 3,…, n -1) m = magnetic 1, 3, 5, 7 (- l to + l )
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Chapter 2 - 5 Electron Energy States 1 s 2 s 2 p K -shell n = 1 L -shell n = 2 3 s 3 p M -shell n = 3 3 d 4 s 4 p 4 d Energy N -shell n = 4 have discrete energy states tend to occupy lowest available energy state. Electrons. .. Adapted from Fig. 2.4, Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
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Chapter 2 - 6 Why? Valence (outer) shell usually not filled completely. Most elements:
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ch02 - CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO ADDRESS....

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