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CSE240 - Midterm 1 cribsheet

CSE240 - Midterm 1 cribsheet - Paradigms...

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Paradigms Imperative/procedural - expresses computation by fully-controlled/specified manipulation of named data in a step-wise fashion. Foundation of these is the stored program concept. Languages include Fortran, Algol, Pascal, C. Object-oriented - Basically the same as imperative, but related variables and operations on variables are organized into classes called objects . Access privileges of vars and methods (operations) in objects can be defined to reduce (simplify) the interaction among objects. Objects considered the main building blocks of programs, which support features like inheritance, class hierarchy, polymorphism. Smalltalk, C++, Java, C# Functional/applicative - Expresses computation in terms of mathematical functions. Supposed to be easy to understand, simple to use. No concept of memory locations in functional programming languages. Each function takes in a number of values as input (parameters) and produces a single return value. Return values not stored. ML, SML, Lisp/Scheme Logic/declarative - Expresses computation in terms of logic predicates. A logic program is a set of facts, rules, questions. Programs compare a question to each fact and rule in given fact and rulebase. Receive yes/no. Prolog. Program Performance/Features Orthogonality, control structures, data types and data structures, syntax design, support for abstraction, expressiveness, type equivalence, strong vs weak type checking , exception handling, aliasing. Reliability, readability, writeability, reusability, efficiency. features\performance Efficiency Readability/reusability Writeability reliability orthogonality/ simplicity X X X X control structures X X X X data type/structures X X X X syntax design X X X support for abstraction X X X expressiveness X X strong checking X restricted aliasing X exception handling X Lexical Structure Lexical structure defines the vocabulary of a language. Units include: Identifiers (var names), Keywords (e.g. final, const), Operators (+,-,<, >, AND, NOT),
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CSE240 - Midterm 1 cribsheet - Paradigms...

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