Sociology exam review

Sociology exam review - Sociology ("our lives are...

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Sociology  (“our lives are structured, constrained, and contained in ways we are unconscious of, take  granted of, and naturalize.”) Sociological Social Psychology   Social Psychology Psychological Social Psychology        Social Psychology    Social Thinking Social Influence Social Relations   Judgments, attitudes   Culture, biology   Prejudice, aggression   What we believe   Pressure to conform   Helping, intimacy  “Attitudes shape behavior”  “Shapes behavior”  “Also biological behavior”  Thinking, memory, attitudes operate on two levels: - conscious, deliberate - unconscious, automatic Primary Tenets  Individual’s behavior strongly influenced by social forces  Social phenomena influenced by individuals Social Structure  (class, race, ethnicity, gender) Social Stratification  (hierarchal arrangement of social classes) Social Norms  (culturally shared rules, guidelines) Social Value  (abstract moral ideas) Social Institution  (relationships from values, norms, statuses   fulfill society’s needs) Status  (system of interconnected positions) Role  (behavior bases on status position) Level of Analysis Macro  (concentration on trends, generalities, structural systems) Micro  (concentration on details, individuals) Meso  (in the middle) Theoretical Framework  (explanation/prediction, gen principals composed of concepts, hypotheses) 1. Structural-Functional Theory “A person’s role determines behavior, beliefs, attitudes.” Role – set of norms (expectations) that guide behavior in situations
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Roles are attached to social structural location Underlying assumption : people are conformists fulfilling other’s expectations Limitations : too mechanical – people don’t always abide by roles (change over time)        Roles may be contradicting 2. Social Learning Theory “Behavior is largely determined by consequences people have directly/indirectly experienced”  Stimulus and response  Reinforcement and punishment Limitations:  people are passive, behavior not as automatic 3. Social Cognitive Theory “Behavior is largely determined by mental activities” Social Cognition  (how make sense of social e and themselves, thought processes) Cognitive Structure  (categories in which incoming info is sorted) Schema  (represents knowledge about something) 4. Sociocultural Theory “Individual’s attitudes, emotions, behavior are affected by the group one belongs to” Culture  (enduring beliefs, attitudes, habits shared by people living in time and place)  Influence of larger groups Limitations:  less emphasis on co-occurring cultures 5. Cognitive Balance/Cognitive Consistency
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2008 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Wormer during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Sociology exam review - Sociology ("our lives are...

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