U.S. Government - Ciglar - 9.1, 1.4 Summary

U.S. Government - Ciglar - 9.1, 1.4 Summary - Cigler 9.1...

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Cigler 9.1 The Federalist, No. 10 by James Madison Addresses the question of how to guard against "factions," groups of citizens with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community. Madison argued that a strong, large republic would be a better guard against those dangers than smaller republics—for instance, the individual states. It is believed that James Madison took ideas from Thomas Hobbes in regards to ideas of a strong controlling government. Opponents of the Constitution offered counterarguments to his position, which were substantially derived from the commentary of Montesquieu on this subject. Jurists have frequently read No. 10 to mean that the Founding Fathers did not intend the United States government to be partisan. He identifies the most serious source of faction to be the diversity of opinion in political life which leads to dispute over fundamental issues such as what regime or religion should be preferred. However, he thinks "the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society." He saw direct democracy as a danger to individual rights and advocated a representative democracy (also called a republic) in order to protect what he viewed as individual liberty from majority rule, or from the effects of such inequality within society. He says, "A pure democracy can admit no cure for the mischiefs of faction. A common passion or interest will be felt by a majority, and there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party. Hence it is, that democracies have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and have, in general, been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths." The question Madison answers, then, is how to eliminate the negative effects of faction? Madison first asserts that there are two ways to limit the damage caused by faction: 1. either remove the causes of faction or 2. control its effects. He contends that there are two ways to remove the causes that provoke the
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2008 for the course POL 110 taught by Professor Sampson during the Spring '08 term at Gustavus.

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U.S. Government - Ciglar - 9.1, 1.4 Summary - Cigler 9.1...

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