Monkeys and Apes - Monkeys and Apes ANTH 180 Primate Traits...

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Unformatted text preview: Monkeys and Apes ANTH 180 Primate Traits 0. Opposable thumbs 1. Stereoscopic vision 2. Large brain 3. Generalize tooth pattern 0. Front often specialized 0. Omnivorous 4. Reproduction favors quality over quantity 5. Arboreal adaptations Primate Social Characteristics 6. Most are diurnal 7. Develop in a social context 1. Mother-infant bond very important 2. Harlow's investigations on isolation 3. "Aunt" behavior by females in group 8. Importance of play 4. Practice physical skills 5. Social relationships Primates 9. Prosimians 6. Lemurs, Indris, Aye-ayes 7. Lorises, Bushbabies 8. Tarsiers 10. Anthropoids 9. New World Monkeys 10. Old World Primates Anthropoids 0. New World monkeys 0. Cebids 1. Marmosets, Tamarins 1. Old World primates 2. Old World monkeys 0. Colobines 1. Cercopithecines 3. Hominoids 2. Lesser apes (Hylobates) 3. Great apes (Pongids) 4. Humans (Hominids) Lemurlike Forms 11. Found only in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands 12. Range of body sizes 13. Quadrupeds 11. Vertical clinging and leaping 14. Solitary to large groups (60+ members) 12. Female dominance Lorislike Forms 15. Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa 16. Nocturnal 17. Arboreal 18. Lorises 13. Slow quadrupedal locomotion 19. Bushbabies 14. Quick vertical-clinging-and-leaping Tarsiers 20. Philippines and Indonesia 21. Nocturnal 22. Arboreal 23. Insect eaters 24. Vertical clinging and leaping 25. Mated pair and dependent offspring Anthropoids 0. Platyrrhines 0. Broad, flat-bridged noses 1. Nostrils facing outward 2. Three premolars 3. Prehensile tail 4. Completely arboreal 5. Found only in the New World 1. Catarrhines 6. Narrow noses 7. Nostrils facing downward 8. Two premolars 9. Old World monkeys, apes, and humans New World Monkeys 2. Callitrichids (marmosets and tamarins) 4. Very small 5. Claws instead of nails 6. Give birth to twins 7. Monogamy or polyandry 8. Male care of infants 9. Eat fruit, sap and insects 3. Cebids 10. Vary widely in size, group composition, and diet Cebids: Old World Monkeys 4. Colobine Monkeys 11. Asian Langurs, African colobus monkeys 12. Mostly arboreal 13. Leave and seed eaters 5. Pouched stomachs 6. Long intestinal tracts 5. Cercopithecine monkeys 14. Includes terrestrial specimens 15. Notable sexual dimorphism in some species 16. Depend more on fruit 17. Cheek pouches 18. Ischial callosities Hominoid Characteristics 6. Relatively large brains, espeical cerebral cortex 7. Short, broad trunks 8. No tail 9. Skeletal specialization for suspensory locomotion 19. Some degree of bipedal locomotion 10. Flat and rounded molars 11. Blood proteins group chimps, gorillas and humans Gibbons and Siamangs 26. Southeast Asia 27. Specialized brachiators 28. Pair bonding 29. Little sexual dimorphism 30. Highly territorial Orangutans 31. Borneo and Sumatra 32. High degree of sexual dimorphism 15. Body size 16. Cheek pads and throat pouches 33. Arboreal fruit-eaters 34. Solitary Gorillas 35. Africa 36. Eat stems, shoots, leaves, roots, flowers 37. Large degree of sexual dimorphism 38. Knuckle walking 39. Harem with "silverback" as leader Chimpanzees 40. Forested areas of Africa 41. Two species 17. Pan troglodytes (common chimp) 18. Pan paniscus (bonobo or pygmy chimp) 1. Longer limbs, smaller heads, dark faces part in their hair 2. No sexual dimorphism 3. More social and female centered Chimpanzees 12. Eat significant amounts of meat 20. Insects, small lizards, birds 21. Hunting 7. By males 8. Food sharing 13. Group organization seems to vary by location 22. Fusion-fission society 23. Patrilineal and matrilineal groups known 14. "Cultural" behaviors 24. Tool use 25. Grooming 26. Mating displays Hominid Traits 15. Bipedalism 27. Pelvis shape 28. Lumbar curve 29. Head balanced over body 16. Thumb is longer and more flexible 17. Larger brain size 30. Cerebral cortex 18. Generalized teeth 31. U-shaped dental arch 32. Present of a chin 19. Male-female bonding Hominid Behaviors 20. Tool making 33. Habitual 34. Tools to make tools 21. Spoken, symbolic language 35. Washoe 22. Hunting large animals 23. Completely terrestrial 24. Longest infant dependency period 25. Division of labor Primate Adaptations: Body Size 42. Predicted by 19. Time of day species active 20. Where active 21. Foods eaten 43. Energy expenditure Primate Adaptations: Brain Size 44. Fruit-eaters have relatively larger brains than leaf-eaters 45. Need for memory of food resources? 22. Concentrated 23. Ripen at different times Primate Adaptations: Group Size 46. Nocturnal = small group size 24. Hunt by sound 47. Diurnal also have small groups 25. Density of food Future Questions 48. What selective forces favored the emergence of primates? 49. What forces favored hominids? 50.What forces lead to Homo? Homo? ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course ANTH 180 taught by Professor Dr.lenorebarbian during the Fall '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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