07.04 Muscular Skeletal and Integumentary Notes - 07.04 Muscular Skeletal and Integumentary Notes Overview Public Domain 2011

07.04 Muscular Skeletal and Integumentary Notes - 07.04...

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07.04 Muscular, Skeletal, and Integumentary Notes Overview Public Domain/© 2011 PhotoObjects.net/Thinkstock Have you ever seen acrobats or contortionists bend and manipulate their bodies in amazing ways? What body systems do these athletes use to perform their impressive skills? What are the functions of those systems and how do they impact your personal health? Believe it or not, an extremely flexible person has the same bones and muscles that are in your body. They have just been conditioned through stretching and practice to perform tasks that may seem impossible to the rest of us! Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: describe the structure and functions of the skeletal system describe the structure and functions of the muscular system explain how the muscular and skeletal system work together explain that the largest organ in the body is also the body's first line of defense against pathogens The Skeletal System All organisms have some type of structural support. Single-celled organisms contain a cytoskeleton. The cells within a multicellular organism also contain individual cytoskeletons, but the entire organism itself often has a structure system. Arthropods have external support structures called exoskeletons while humans and other vertebrates contain a skeletal system.
When we look at fossilized bones of dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals, it is easy to see how they are strong and rigid enough to provide support for the animals’ large bodies. What may not be as obvious is that an organism’s skeletal system is made up of living tissue with several important functions within the body. Functions of the Skeleton Support The skeleton’s bones give support and shape to the body. Protection Bones protect the internal organs of the body. Movement The skeleton has a system of joints and levers that coordinate with muscles to produce movement. Mineral Storage Bones contain reserves of minerals, such as calcium, that are important to processes in the body. Whenever calcium levels in the blood are low, some of the stored calcium is released from the bones. Blood Cell Formation Blood cells are produced in the soft marrow tissue that fills the internal cavities of some bones. The human skeleton can be divided into two regions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton . The axial skelton is made up of the skull, mandible, and the vertebrae in the spinal column. The appendicular skeleton is made up of the rest of the bones, such as those in the arms and legs. Bone Structure Bones are living tissue made up of several distinct layers. Explore those layers in the interactive below.
Periosteum The rigid outside of the bone is a tough layer of connective tissue called the periosteum.

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