Lecture 1 – 9/6/07
The Material Bases pf Industrial Society
1870 to 1910 the European population increases.
But a small percentage of the
world population lives in Europe.
In 1900 there is a peak in the population, and hasn’t
been as high since, and is declining.
(Thought: Asia has the highest population but
doesn’t it also have something to do with land space?)
Reason for increase in population: 1.nutrition – increase in quality and quantity
(potatoes and corn, come from America, become available to Europeans)
which is related with nutrition, black plague and it came through ports, usually from east
(China) and then never came back again
This led to a
Birth rates go down, but death rates going
It was a general pattern but not true everywhere.
This is reason for increase
Ireland’s potato blight (1840s) cause half million to million people die.
That’s why Irish
have less people now, with immigration.
Massive immigration 1870 to 1900s.
Public health, statistical knowledge, germ theory (from Luis Pasteur) only after 1890.
Miasma theory: disease spread by bad air.
Growth of European cities, London, Paris, Vienna.
Countryside moves to towns.
Therefore urban population increases from 1800 to 1890.
By cities we mean density, it is dense.
Cities are where cultural innovation occurs.
of contact, but contact brings conflict.
Poor lived on the floor, (
) aristocratic is next level with high ceiling,
next middle lower class, then rich, and top floor were the maids and the caterers that
served the people below.
Modern urban planning.
Show of political power, starting in the 19
it’s the govt that plans.
Segregation by class.
Rich move to suburb kind of place and poor like contractors live in other kind of
buildings, that look like apartment buildings.
These had very small rooms, very dense.
One room, toilet there to take out.
Why ppl (didn’t) move to cities:
Second Industrial Revolution
, steel, chemicals,
electricity, internal combustion engine.
Increases in manufacturing jobs bring ppl to the
Symbol of first revolution was cotton, textile.
Cotton increase better hygiene
because wool is very hard to was compared to cotton, better health.
Steel: The Bessemer Process (patented 1855).
through metal tube things and cause a kind of explosion and what came out was steel.
Mass production of steel in this way.
Became perfect for construction of railways.
Therefore miles of track in Europe increases, 1840-1880.