BIOL 4160 Final - BIOL 4160 Final Chapter 16 Digestion Transfer nutrients water and electrolytes from ingested food bodys internal environment Four

BIOL 4160 Final - BIOL 4160 Final Chapter 16 Digestion...

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BIOL 4160 Final Chapter 16: Digestion Transfer nutrients, water and electrolytes from ingested food into body’s internal environment Four basic process: motility, secretion, digestion, absorption Digestion of organics Carbohydrates: most ingest are polysaccharides [starch, glycogen, cellulose (indigestible fiber)]; disaccharides [sucrose (glucose-frucose), lactose (glucose-galactose)]; digestion leads to absorbable monosaccharides Proteins: proteins and peptide; small peptides and amino acids are the absorbable units Lipids/fats: most in form of triglycerides (glycerol + 3 fatty acid molecules); fat digestion yields monoglycerides and free fatty acids Digestive tract wall has four tissue layers: (listed from the innermost out) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa Wall has same general structure from esophagus to anus Mucosa Lines the luminal surface of the digestive tract Divides into 3 layers: o Mucous membrane: inner epithelial layer that serves as a protective surface o Lamina propria: thin middle layer of connective tissue; contains GALT- gut associated lymphoid tissue – combats intestinal bacteria 1
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