Chick Embryo LR - Meghan Czajka Section 004 Chick Embryo...

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Meghan Czajka Section 004 Chick Embryo Lab Report The Effects of Temperature and Caffeine on Rate of Organogenesis and Heart Rate in the Chick Embryo Introduction This lab was performed to investigate the effects of temperature and caffeine on the embryo of a chick. In the early stages of development, embryos are extra sensitive to their surroundings, thus making them an ideal model for this experiment. The embryo of a chick is also very representative of organogenesis in vertebrates in its primary aspects, which is why it can be very useful in following these early stages in all vertebrates. There are multiple landmark structures developed in these early stages which help to give the experimenter a clue as to how old the embryo is, approximately. For example, at 24 hours, the neural fold and groove, somites, and the notochord are visible (1). The number of somites in the embryo is especially important, and relatively facilitative, in determining the age of the embryo. As more and more landmark structures become apparent in the embryo, it is easier to conclude on the age. Temperature can play a dramatic role on the rate at which an embryo develops these landmark structures. Since heat is a form of energy, adding energy to a process will almost always catalyze it (2). Therefore, in an attempt to determine which embryo is older in our experiment, one would assume that the embryo growing in a warmer environment would be more developed than the one growing in a less warm environment. Thus, my group predicted that in a higher temperature environment, there would be a faster rate of organogenesis in the embryo. In predicting how caffeine would affect the heart rate of the embryo, our group considered a few facts. Because the embryo is in the very early stages of development, and we
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know that any outside substance has the greatest affects on an embryo during these stages, one can assume that the caffeine would definitely have a dramatic affect on the heart rate of these embryos because the heart is very sensitive during this time. Our group predicted that with an increased dosage of caffeine, there would be increase because caffeine is a known stimulant. It is also characterized as being hydrophobic which makes it very capable of permeating quickly through tissue membranes. It is a part of the xanthine chemical group. Another xanthine known as adenosine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain. Due to their similar chemical properties, many nerve cells recognize caffeine as adenosine and allow it to binds to their adenosine receptors. Since these receptors are blocking out the actual adenosine, neuron firing in the brain is increased which in turn causes the pituitary gland to react as if it were an emergency and begins to produce mass amounts of adrenaline. The adrenaline in turn has many effects on the body, including an increase in heart rate and blood pressure (3). Therefore, our group predicted an increase in heart rate with the addition of caffeine, and an increased heartbeat with an increased amount of caffeine.
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