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Psych 101 - notes 2

Psych 101 - notes 2 - 2/27 7.1 Types of Memory Memory the...

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2/27 - 7.1: Types of Memory Memory - the retention of information What we remember - names, facts, numbers, places, skills, languages, etc. Ebbinghaus and Verbal Memory Ebbinghaus - taught new material and then measured memory - nonsense syllables - created lists, GAK, JEK, MOJ, etc. - observed himself - longer list = more repetitions to memorize correctly - college students had better memory than Ebbinghaus Memory for Listed Items - words easier to remember: - standouts, position, repetition, early childhood (ie. apple) Serial Position Effect - memorize more at beginning and end of list - Primary Effect - remember first few items - Recent Effect - remember the final items Methods of Testing Memory Free Recall - produce a response, like an essay • ex: name 2 nd grade classmates Cued Recall - receive hints about a material • ex: name 2 nd grade classmates when given a class photo Recognition - given several choices and asked to select correct one • ex: multiple choice test Relearning Method - comparing speed of original learning to speed of relearning • ex: relearning names of your 2 nd grade class Explicit Memory - (direct memory) - someone who states an answer regards it as a product of his memory - free recall, cued recall, recognition, relearning Implicit Memory - (indirect memory) - an experience influences your actions without you realizing it • ex: reading or hearing a word temporarily primes that word and increases the chance of you using it
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TABLE 7.2: SEVERAL WAYS TO TEST MEMORY Title Description Example Free Recall You are asked to say what you remember. Name the 7 Dwarfs. Cued Recall You are given hints to help you remember. Name the 7 Dwarfs. Hint: one was always smiling, one was smart, one never talked, one was always tired… Recognition You are asked to choose the correct item among several items. Which of the following were among the 7 Dwarfs: Sneezy, Sleazy, Dopey, Dippy, Hippy, Happy? Relearning (saving) You are asked to relearn something. If it takes less time now than when you first learned it, the there is memory. Try memorizing this list: Sleepy, Sneezy, Doc, Dopey, Grumpy, Happy Can you memorize it faster than this list: Sleazy, Snoopey, Duke, Dippy, Gripey, Hippy? Implicit Memory You are asked to generate words, without necessarily regarding them as memories. You hear the story “Snow White and the 7 Dwarfs.” Later you are asked to fill in the blanks: _ L _ _ P _ , _ N _ _ Z _ , _ _ C , _ R _ _ P _ , etc. Procedural Memory - memories of motor skills Declarative Memory - memories we can readily state in words Difference between the two: • ex: you know how to type but do you know which key is to the right of C or left of P? The Information-Processing View of Memory René Descartes - compared animal behavior to a hydraulic pump Information-Processing Model - information that enters the system is processed, coded, and stored Sensory Store - momentary storage of sensory information - iconic: visual, seeing something with sequence - echoic: auditory, if there’s a reason (hearing your name) - kinetic: movement of actions (hitting lamppost) George Sperling - flashed letters onto a screen
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Psych 101 - notes 2 - 2/27 7.1 Types of Memory Memory the...

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