AP Statistics Semester Review - 1 AP Statistics Semester...

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1 AP Statistics Semester Review Dan Herber I. Chapter 1 Basic Statistics - Descriptive statistics  is the numerical, graphical, and tabular methods for  organizing and summarizing data - Population  is the entire collection of individuals or measurements about which  information is desired -Sample  is a part of the population selected for study -Categorical variable  records which of several groups or categories an  individual belongs to -Quantitative variable  takes a numerical value Discrete  is when values are exact in a given range Continuous  is when values can be any size in a given range II. Chapter 2 Bias in Sampling -Selection   bias   is   introduced   when   the   way   the   sample   is   selected  systematically excludes some part of the population in interest - Measurement  or  response bias  occurs when the method of observation tends  to produce values that systematically differ from the true value in some way - Nonresponse bias  occurs when responses are not actually obtained from all  individuals selected for inclusion Random Sampling - Simple random sample of size   n   is a sample choose using a method that  ensures that each different possible sample of the desired size has an equal  chance of being the one selected * Sampling frame  is a listing of all elements in the  sample population * Sampling with replacement  means that after each successive item is  selected for the sample, the item is replaced back into the population * Sampling without replacement  means that after each successive item  is selected for the sample, the item is taken out of the population and can  no longer be chosen - Stratified random sampling  is when the entire population can be divided into a  set of non-overlapping subgroups
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2 AP Statistics Semester Review Dan Herber *subgroups called  strata - Cluster sampling   involves dividing the entire population of interest into non- overlapping subgroups, called  clusters . - Systematic sampling   (1 in k systematic sample) is a procedure that can be  used when it is possible to view the population in interest as consisting of a list or  some other sequential arrangement - Convenience sampling  is selecting the easiest acquired sample, don’t do it! Observation and Experimentation -Observational study  is a study when the investigator observes characteristics  of a subset of the members of one or more existing populations *The   goal   is   usually   to   draw   conclusions   about   the   corresponding  population or about differences between two or more populations -Experiment  is a study when the investigator observes how a response variable  behaves when the researcher manipulates one or more factors. 
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2008 for the course STAT 100 taught by Professor Patterson during the Spring '08 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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AP Statistics Semester Review - 1 AP Statistics Semester...

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