A.P. U.S. History Notes:
Chapter 10: “Launching of the New Ship of State”
~ 1789 – 1800 ~
A New Ship on an Uncertain Sea
1789, the new U.S. Constitution was launched
, and population was doubling every
America’s population was still 90% rural, with 5% west of the Appalachians.
Vermont became the 14
state in 1791, and Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio (states
where trans-Appalachian overflow was concentrated) became states soon after.
Visitors looked down upon the crude, rough pioneers, and these western people were
restive and dubiously loyal at best.
In the twelve years after American independence, laws had been broken and a
constitution had been completely scrapped and replaced with a new one, something that
was not best of government
America was also heavily in debt, and paper money was worthless, but meanwhile,
restless monarchs watched to see if the U.S. could succeed in setting up a republic while
facing such overwhelming odds.
Washington’s Profederalist Regime
At 6’2”, 175 pounds, broad and sloping shoulders, a strongly pointed chin and
pockmarks from Smallpox,
was an imposing figure, which helped
in his getting unanimously
drafted as president by the Electoral College in 1789.
His long journey from Mt. Vernon to New York (capital at the time) was a triumphant
procession filled with cheering crowds and roaring festivities, and he took his oath of
office on April 30, 1789, on a balcony overlooking Wall Street.
Washington established a diverse cabinet (which was not necessary, Constitution-wise).
Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of War: Henry Knox
The Bill of Rights
Many states had ratified the Constitution on the condition that there would be a
, and many antifederalists had criticized the Constitution for its lack of a Bill.
The necessary number of states adopted it in 1791.
Amendment I: Freedom of religion, speech or press, assembly, and petition.
Amendment II: Right to bear arms (for militia).
Amendment III: Soldiers can’t be housed in civilian homes during peacetime.
Amendment IV: No unreasonable searches; all searches require warrants.
Amendment V: Right to refuse to speak during a civil trial; Double Jeopardy.
Amendment VI: Right to a speedy and public trial.
Amendment VII: Right to trial by jury when the sum exceeds $20.
Amendment VIII: No excessive bails and/or fines.
Amendment IX: Other rights not enumerated are also in effect.
Amendment X: Non-federal powers belong to the state.
Judiciary Act o f 1789
created effective federal courts.