ENGLISH 2201The Middle Ages Old English/Anglo-Saxon period oLatin and old English 1066 official breaking point between old English and middle English conquest periodNorman Conquest, Battle of Hastings, William of Normandy spoke French (language of power)Middle English PeriodoLatin, French, and middle English Pre Conquest EnglandAuthors of old English into word play (Riddles & Kennings)oKennings Language-Bearers (89)“He will come again to this middle-earth” (104)Beowulf- “ring givers” and “peace weavers”“The wanderer”- hardscape (earth-trader)8/26 Riddles & KenningsRiddle- a form of wordplay oAssociative logicMetonymy: Wall Street, the bench (the judge)Synecdoche: wheels- carMetaphor: love=battlefield Logic dictated by cultureKennings-oCompound word phrase “ring-giver”oA substitute label for another simple noun “ring-giver” = “king”oA style of circumlocution or “speaking around”MAKE A KENNING FOR NEXT WEEK. BE SPECIFIC.8/29 Middle Ages*What languages were spoken and written in the pre conquest period Latin and old English*
Monastic culture o“Rule” (St. Benedict)oChastity- poverty- obedience Prayer-meditation-labor“Reading and writing “Opus Dei” (Gods Work)oall by hand, done by scribesLindisfarne (monastery) Lindisfarne GospelsoDucksoInterlacing changes point of views (ex game of thrones, thrillers)Book of Kills 9thc oManuscript CultureVellum, Parchment- from sheep or cattle“hands” & abbreviations expensive Pre Conquest literatureoLatinHistoryBede, Ecclesiastical History of the English people 731 AD (*Latin)Conversion of EnglandLife on earth is compared to a sparrow??Whitby AbbeyoAbbess Hild- ruled double monastery TheologyMoral and religious writingsLives of saints oOld EnglishHistory Moral and religious writingsPoetryoPreserve the earliest known poem in old English “Caedmon’s hymn”oHalf line alliterationo“Dream of the Rood”Earliest English example of the “dream vision”Framed narrativeStory of the dreamerStory of the cross
Surreal imagery Cinematic imaginationTransformationsCross “Warrior”/ChristDreamer Elegieso“Ubi sunt”. “where are they”oAbout lossLoss of friendsLoss of communityLoss of a loved oneLoss of a civilizationLoss of selfoCausesDeathSicknessPassage of timeWar Natural disaster o“The Wanderer”The speakerAll his friends are dead, life as he knows it is gone, everyone is goneReflects on own situation The human conditionUbi SuntEverything passes awayResolutionPersonal and real description of loss, speaker is a warrior, only survivor WorldlySpiritual Riddles Narratives about old testament heroes, Christ, apostles, saintsoBeowulf (Elegy)Anthology of monsters Epic disappointment?
Iliad AeneidNibelungenliedNorse sagas SubjectsGods Men & armsWar DranesHrothgarWealhteowUnferthHrotholfGeatsBeowulf & more“In the dark nights”GrendeloGlowing eyes, steely nails, bigger than any man