HDFS summary 2 - Jennifer Miller - HD FS 229 Summary 2 The...

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Jennifer Miller - HD FS 229 Summary 2 The Genetic Process There are twenty - three chromosomes in each, male and female. The sex of a fetus is determined by the twenty - third pair. If this pair is XX, it will be a female, and XY for a male. The TDF ( Testes Determining Factor ) : The sperm will always determine the sex. Chromosomes - stuctures containing DNA, coming in 23 pairs from each parent. DNA - made up of genetic information. Genes - containing hereditary information and directing the cells to reproduce. Mitosis and meiosis are the processes in which new cells are formed. An egg and a sperm come together to form a zygote in the reproduction process. Genotype - tells a person's genetic make up. Phenotype - shows the external characteristics of a person. Chromosome Abnormalities Trisomy 21 ( Down syndrome ) - most common in whites, this occurs when there is an extra chromosome causing retardation and physically abnormal. The incidence increases with age. Sex - Linked Abnormalities ( When there is an extra or missing chromosome. ) : Turner syndrome - occuring in females that are born missing an X chromosome, they will not be able to conceive and, in some, can cause retardation. Klinefelters - males born with an extra X chromosome, causes underdeveloped testes or larger breast tissue. Fragile X - an abnormality with one of the X chromosomes, causing learning disabilities, or a short attention span. This occurs more in males due to the fact that females have an extra X. XYY syndrome ( supermale ) - males born with an extra Y chromosome, causes the male to be taller and stronger than average. Gene - Linked Abnormalities ( When there are harmful genes or an uneven number of chromosomes. ) :
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Hemophilia - occuring in males, blood clots are delayed and causes internal beeding. Spina bifida - a disorder that causes an abnormal brain and spine. Sickle - cell anemia - limiting the bloods oxygen suppy, causing possible heart and kidney failure. Diabetes - the body isn't producing enough insulin. Infertility
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course HD FS 229 taught by Professor Gutshall,donna during the Fall '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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HDFS summary 2 - Jennifer Miller - HD FS 229 Summary 2 The...

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