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Chapter-16 - Chapter 16 The Ferment of Reform and...

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Chapter 16: The Ferment of Reform and Culture (1790-1860) I. Reviving Religion a. Church attendance were regular in 1850(3/4 pop) b. Many relied on Deism (reason rather revelation); rejected original sin, denied Christ’s divinity but believed in supreme being that created universe c. Puritans of the past now-Unitarian faith(New Eng.) -god existed in only 1 person not in orthodox trinity; stressed goodness of human nature -belief n free will & salvation through good work; pictured God as loving father -appealed to intellectuals w/ rationalism & optimism d. liberalism in relig started in 1800 -tidal wave of spiritual fervor that result prison, church reform, temperance cause, women’s movement, abolish slavery -spread to mass through huge “camp meetings” -E went to W to Christianize Indians -Methodists & Baptist stressed personal conversion, demo in church affairs, emotionalism -Peter Cartwright-best known of “circuit riders” -Charles Grandison Finney were greatest of revival preachers -led massive revivals in Rochester & New York II. Denominational Diversity a. revival furthered fragmentation of religious faith -New York w/ Puritans preaching “hellfire” known as “Burned-out District” -Millerites(Adventists)-Christ return to earth on Oct 22,1844 (didn’t come) b. widen lines bet. classes & region(like 1 st ) -conservatives, propertied-Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Congregationalists, Unitarians -less learned of S & E-Methodists, Baptists c. Religious further split w/ issue on slavery (Methodist, Presbyterians split) III. A Desert Zion in Utah a. Joseph Smith(1830) came up(NY) w. Mormon & Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints -antagonism toward Mormons for polygamy, drilling militia, voting as a unit -Smith died but succeeded by Brigham Young who led followers to Utah -grew quickly by 1850s by birth & immigration from Euro -federal gov. marched to Utah when Young became govnr. But no bloodshed -polygamy prevented Utah entrance to US till 1896 IV. Free School for a Free People a. Tax-supported primary school was opposed bec, relate to pauperism & used by poor b. Gradually support bec. “brats” might grow up to be rabbles w. voting rights c. Free pub edu, triumphed in 1825 w/ vote power in Jackson elect -ill taught & ill trained teachers
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