PAE1 2. kafli - frumefni, sameindir og jonir

PAE1 2. kafli - frumefni, sameindir og jonir - kafli 2...

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Dr. Oddur Ingólfsson, Háskóli Íslands, Almenn efnafraeði 1 1 Almenn efnafraeði 1 Frumeindir, sameindir og jónir kafli 2 Háskóli Íslands Frumeindakenning Dalton’s (1808) 1. Frumefni (elements) samanstanda af örsmáum eindum, frumeindum (atoms). Allar frumeindir sama frumefnis eru eins (staerð, massi og efnaeiginleikar). Frumeindir eins frumefnis eru ólíkar frumeindum allra annarra frumefna. 2. Sameindir samanstanda af frumeindum tveggja eða fleiri frumefna. Hlutfall frumeinda hvers frumefnis er alltaf það sama. 3. Við efnahvörf er frumeindum einungis endurraðað. Þaer verða ekki til og þaer eyðast ekki. 2.1 2.1 Súrefni í CO og CO 2 Kolsýringur Koltvísýringur Ef tvö frumefni geta myndað fleiri en eitt efnasamband þá eru hlutföll þeirra alltaf margfeldi af heilum tölum. 1 _ 2 1 _ 1 8 X 2 Y 16 X 8 Y + 2.1 Frumeindakenning Dalton’s Sameindir frumefnis X og Y Frumeindir frumefnis X Frumeindir frumefnis Y
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Dr. Oddur Ingólfsson, Háskóli Íslands, Almenn efnafraeði 1 2 J.J. Thomson Maeldi massa/hleðslu hlutfall rafeindanna e - (1906 Nóbelsverðlaun í eðlisfraeði) 2.2 A S N + Segulsvið Flúrljómandi skjár Háspenna Forskaut Bakskaut J.J. Thomson massa/hleðslu hlutfall rafeindanna e - r = m * v/B * e F B = Bev x B r e - = mv x 2 r r = m * v/B * e W=N 1/2m * v 2 Q = N * e e /m = 2W/ r 2 B 2 Q = 1,76 10 11 C/kg B r e - e /m = 2dE/ l 2 B 2 = 1,76 10 11 C/kg F B = F E = B e v=E e d = ½ e E/m (l/v) 2 e /m = 2d/E (v/l)2 v = E /B
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Dr. Oddur Ingólfsson, Háskóli Íslands, Almenn efnafraeði 1 3 A B C S N + Flúrljómandi skjár Háspenna Forskaut Bakskaut J.J. Thomson massa/hleðslu hlutfall rafeindanna e - Hleðslu/massahlutfall rafeindar = -1,76 * 10 8 C/g "I can see no escape from the conclusion that [cathode rays] are charges of negative electricity carried by particles of matter." "What are these particles? are they atoms, or molecules, or matter in a still finer state of subdivision?" "we have in the cathode rays matter in a new state, a state in which the subdivision of matter is carried
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This note was uploaded on 09/18/2008 for the course A. EFNAFRï 108 taught by Professor Oddur during the Fall '08 term at Uni. Iceland.

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PAE1 2. kafli - frumefni, sameindir og jonir - kafli 2...

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