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Psychology 4070-1

Psychology 4070-1 - Psychology 4070 Experiments sample of...

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Psychology 4070 - Experiments – sample of people; learn one aspect about them - Case study – one or few individuals are studied; learn as much as you can about them - Example of a case study - John and Larry are friends - They grew up in a crime area; have divorced parents; their mothers raised them; they did poor in school; got in trouble with the law - They were “children at risk”; environmental stressors included poverty - At age 30, John is in prison, unemployed, an alcoholic - At age 30, Larry is finished high school and owns a business - What separates Larry from John is resiliency ; invulnerable – ability to bounce back from adversity - 3 factors help make someone resilient - 1.) Parental support – affection, assistance, introducing order into their child’s life - Good parents love, sacrifice, and provide organization and structure - 2.) Intelligence – personal characteristic; personality; stable characteristic; internal - 3.) Having a mentor – social support outside the family - You can help a child become resilient by changing his personal characteristics (therapy) or by getting the parents to do a better job parenting Chapter 1: The Science Of Studying Development And Developmental Research Designs Development Science – Theories And Hypotheses - Theory – integrated principles that explain and predict why things occur - Hypothesis – testable, possible relationship between events - Specific prediction of what should happen if theory is true - Scientific method – tools to collect information about the world – impartially - Hard science – chemistry, biology - Social science – psychology, sociology; people are studied - Psychologists don’t control what they study as much as other scientists do - 5 steps - 1.) Formulate a research question from previous studies or from scientific observation ; must be systematic and purposeful - 2.) Develop a hypothesis, a testable prediction - 3.) Test the hypothesis; design and conduct an experiment - Unobtrusive observations in Psychology – Why? - 4.) Draw conclusions – does the data support or refute the hypothesis - 5.) Publicize the results so other scientists can evaluate and/or replicate - Science has a way of correcting itself Testing a Real-Life Hypothesis - Research design – a plan for conducting experiments to evaluate a hypothesis - Hypothesis – an educated guess, stating a causal relationship between two variables - A change in the IV causes a change in the DV - Independent variable (IV) – what the experimenter manipulates - Dependent variable (DV) – depends on the independent variable - Controlled experiment – control things so only the IV changes, then we’re sure the IV causes the change in the DV (behavior is the most common DV in psychology) - Hypothesis – a change in the IV causes the DV to change - Developmental hypothesis – states a causal relationship between two variables where the IV is usually age - Developmental research design – a plan for conducting experiments to evaluate a developmental hypothesis – how people change with age - Cross-sectional design – compare two or more age groups using a variable of interest
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