This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Psychology 4070 Cognitive Development in Piagets Formal Stage, Adolescent Thought, and Other Theories- Formal operational intelligence = 12+ years old- Can think logically about hypothetical/abstract things- Think about the form of statements and ideas rather than the concrete things the words represent- Concrete reasoners will try to solve many problems by trial-and-error- Formal reasoners will hypothesize and mentally consider the results- Formal reasoners will:- 1.) Systematically generate hypotheses- 2.) Test them- 3.) Based upon the feedback from old hypotheses, generate new and better hypotheses- Combination of Liquids or Four Beaker Problem- The beaker on the right (X) contains one or a mixture of the chemicals 1-4- When you add a few drops of g to (X), watch what happens- Determine how each chemical affects the reaction (getting the yellow color)- Do chemicals 1, 2, 3, or 4 cause, have no effect on, or stop the color change?- Concrete reasoners are weak on a capacity called interpropositional thinking- Concrete reasoners cannot compare several hypotheses to see if they are logically consistent with each other- 20 Questions Game- Concrete reasoners have difficulty generating and thinking about hypotheses- To a concrete reasoner reality is the only possibility- To a formal reasoner reality is one of many possibilities- Late in life, Piaget moved away from a belief in rigid timelines the necessity of the same changes always occurring in the same order- All adults are not formal reasoners- Why not?- Hypotheses are:- 1.) Formal reasoning is environmentally dependent nurture explanation- 2.) Formal reasoning is a specific aptitude that only some people have nature explanation- The Branch or Branching Theory development is related to branches on a tree- Everyone makes it to the Sensorimotor, Preoperational, and Concrete Operational stages- The environment determines whether or not someone makes it to the Formal Operational stage- The person may always think concretely, sometimes think concretely and sometimes think formally, or always think formally- Its a nurturing explanation- Do they go to Junior High School or not?- Formal operations are both:- Good thinking about whats possible in ones life, forming an identity and understanding others- Bad cause some of the painful aspects of adolescence; questioning everything, angry at inconsistencies rebel against their parents and governments priorities- Piaget adolescents are so focused on their thinking that they appear more egocentric- David Elkind two types of egocentrism in adolescents- 1.) The Imaginary Audience adolescent feels constantly on stage, everyone is watching and critical- 2.) Personal Fable a belief in the uniqueness of oneself and ones thinking- Elkind thought the invincibility fable might be part of the personal fable- Invincibility fable an adolescents supposed belief that though they engage in risky behavior...
View Full Document