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Psychology 4070 3

Psychology 4070 3 - Psychology 4070 Cognitive Development...

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Psychology 4070 Cognitive Development in Piaget’s Formal Stage, Adolescent Thought, and Other Theories - Formal operational intelligence = 12+ years old - Can think logically about hypothetical/abstract things - Think about the “form ” of statements and ideas – rather than the concrete things the words represent - Concrete reasoners will try to solve many problems by trial-and-error - Formal reasoners will hypothesize and mentally consider the results - Formal reasoners will: - 1.) Systematically generate hypotheses - 2.) Test them - 3.) Based upon the feedback from old hypotheses, generate new and better hypotheses - Combination of Liquids or Four Beaker Problem - The beaker on the right (X) contains one or a mixture of the chemicals 1-4 - When you add a few drops of “g” to (X), watch what happens - Determine how each chemical affects the reaction (getting the yellow color) - Do chemicals 1, 2, 3, or 4 cause, have no effect on, or stop the color change? - Concrete reasoners are weak on a capacity called interpropositional thinking - Concrete reasoners cannot compare several hypotheses to see if they are logically consistent with each other - 20 Questions Game - Concrete reasoners have difficulty generating and thinking about hypotheses - To a concrete reasoner – reality is the only possibility - To a formal reasoner – reality is one of many possibilities - Late in life, Piaget moved away from a belief in rigid timelines – the necessity of the same changes always occurring in the same order - All adults are not formal reasoners - Why not? - Hypotheses are: - 1.) Formal reasoning is environmentally dependent – nurture explanation - 2.) Formal reasoning is a specific aptitude that only some people have – nature explanation - The Branch or Branching Theory – development is related to branches on a tree - Everyone makes it to the Sensorimotor, Preoperational, and Concrete Operational stages - The environment determines whether or not someone makes it to the Formal Operational stage - The person may always think concretely, sometimes think concretely and sometimes think formally, or always think formally - It’s a nurturing explanation - Do they go to Junior High School or not? - Formal operations are both: - Good – thinking about what’s possible in one’s life, forming an identity and understanding others - Bad – cause some of the painful aspects of adolescence; questioning everything, angry at inconsistencies – rebel against – their parent’s and government’s priorities - Piaget – adolescents are so focused on their thinking that they appear more egocentric - David Elkind – two types of egocentrism in adolescents - 1.) The Imaginary Audience – adolescent feels constantly on stage, everyone is watching and critical - 2.) Personal Fable – a belief in the uniqueness of oneself and one’s thinking - Elkind thought the “invincibility fable” might be part of the “personal fable” - Invincibility fable – an adolescent’s supposed belief that though they engage in risky behavior they can’t be harmed
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