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Chapter Summaries exam 1 - Chapter Summaries Chapter 1 6...

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Chapter Summaries Chapter 1 6 major challenges that managers face Achieving competitive advantage- must strive to excel in responsiveness, innovation, quality, and efficiency Embracing diversity Managing for globalization- sensitive to cultures and traditions Incorporating information technology Incorporating ethics Achieving life goals and personal satisfaction Four functions of management- planning, organizing, leading, controlling Mutual benefit organization- voluntary collections of members who come together to advance their own interests Henry Mintzberg discovered that all managers share these characteristics: managers rely on verbal communication more than written communication, managers work hard for long hours, managers perform a variety of fragmented, brief tasks. Physiological characteristics of entrepreneurs: High need for achievement Internal locus of control High energy level and action orientation High tolerance for ambiguity Self-confidence and tolerance for risk Robert Katz said that managers acquire 3 principal skills- technical, conceptual, and human Chapter 2 Evidence based management- based on the scientific method Observing an event Posing a possible explanation Predicting future events Testing those predictions Classical viewpoint- Scientific management- scientific study of work method to improve the productivity of individual workers Frederick W. Taylor- father of scientific management o Carefully select a task through motional studies o Select the appropriate workers o Train and incentivize them appropriately o Plan work methods to help workers better do their jobs *he also suggested that there should be a differential rate system in which workers earn more if they are more productive Frank and Lillian Gilbreth- identified 17 basic motions involved in bricklaying (therbligs.) they reduced worker fatigue and increased productivity Administrative management- concerned with managing the entire organization Henri Fayol- the first to enumerate the major functions of management (planning, organizing, leading, controlling, and coordinating) Max Weber- described bureaucracy as an efficient, rational, ideal organization based on logical principles o Ideal bureaucracy has 5 features- Impersonality Merit based careers Clear division of labor A well defined hierarchy of authority Formal rules and procedures Behavioral viewpoint- emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement
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