U.S History Yuhong Chen Mr. Zanfardino Dec 7, 13 Chapter 10 The Union in Peril Section 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery i. Differences Between North and South The North was industrializing rapidly as factories turned out ever increasing amounts of products, from textiles and sewing machines to farm equipment and guns. Railroad tracks with more than 20000 miles of track during the 1850 were reaching across the section. They carried wheat, iron ore, and other raw materials eastwards and manufactured goods and settlers westward. Immigrants fleeing from famine and poverty in Europe mostly from Ireland and Germany entered the industrial workplace in growing numbers. The voter strongly opposed slavery, slaves represented unfair labor competition because they could perform work that otherwise would be done by free man worker. In 1850 in New York City, Irish immigrants marched to the polls shouting that African Americans should “go back to Africa, where they belong.” Unlike the North, the South remained a predominantly rural society, consisting mostly of plantations and small farms. The southern economy relied on agriculture, especially on cotton production. Southerners were slower to take advantage, few immigrants settled in the south because African Americans filled most of the available jobs for artisans, mechanics and laborers. ii. Slavery in the Territories Wilmot Proviso is an amendment to an 1846 military appropriations bill, proposing that none of the territory acquired in the war with Mexico would be open to slavery. North gradually support Wilmot Proviso but South opposed the Proviso which some believed raised complex constitutional issues. California’s new constitution forbade slavery, a fact that alarmed and angered many Southerners. Since California lay south, it would be open to slavery. iii. The Senate Debates The border dispute in which the slave state of Texas claimed the eastern half of the New Mexico territory, where the issue of slavery had not yet been settled. Northerners demanded the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, while southerners accused the North failing to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793. Compromise of 1850 is a series congressional measures intended to settle the major disagreements between Free states and slave states.