Chapter 5 Soc Study guide

Chapter 5 Soc Study guide - [Type text] Page 1 Study Guide...

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[Type text] Page 1 Study Guide Ch 5 1. What are groups? What is the largest one? Group : people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a social group . Groups are the essence of life in society. Even our minds are a product of the groups to which we belong. The largest group is a society . Society : People who share a culture and a territory. Society lays the broad framework for our behavior but also influences the ways we think and feel. Technology is the key to understanding the broad, sweeping changes that have produced our society. 2. How are the earliest societies doing? Hunting and gathering society : a human group that depends on hunting and gathering for its survival. The major unit of organization is the family. The family distributes food to its members, educates its children (especially in survival skills), nurses its sick, and provides for virtually all other needs. Children have only a 55% chance of surviving childhood. Because what they hunt and gather is perishable, and have no money, the people accumulate few personal possessions. No one becomes wealthier than someone else. “Author states” that they do not have rulers, and decisions are reached through discussion. All human groups were hunters and gatherers until several hundred years ago. Shaman : the healing specialist of a tribe who attempts to control the spirits thought to cause a disease or injury; commonly called a witch doctor. 3. The social transformations of society – Figure 5.1 be familiar with how each began. Started out as Hunting and Gathering Societies. a. First Social Revolution: Domestication (growing plants, raising animals) Horticultural and Pastoral Society b. Second Social Revolution: Agricultural (invention of the plow) Agricultural Society c. Third Social Revolution: Industrial (invention of the steam engine) Industrial Society d. Fourth Social Revolution: Information (invention of the microchip) Postindustrial (information) Society e. Fifth Social Revolution: Bioeconomic (decoding of human genome system?) Biotech society? (This is soon to come. Can you imagine two of you walking around?)
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[Type text] Page 2 4. Pastoral and horticultural societies. First Social Revolution. Domestication Revolution : the first social revolution, based on the domestication of plants and animals, which led to pastoral and horticultural societies. Pastoral Society : a society based on the pasturing of animals. Pasture , or herding. They developed where low rainfall made it impractical to grow crops. Horticulture Society : a society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools. Horticulture, or gardening.
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Chapter 5 Soc Study guide - [Type text] Page 1 Study Guide...

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