HUM 111 LECTURE 1 - MY TA IS Elizabeth...

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MY TA IS Elizabeth Parang ( [email protected] ) Email general questions to the teacher Civilization is possible when people settle in cities… civilization comes from the latin root city- civilization is stable, sedentary, existence Use BC, AD, BCE, or CE but use something 450 BC is the fifth century BC, REMEMBER THE PREHISTORIC ERA: THE STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL Chronology: There is scientific evolution, divinely planned evolution, biblical view on beginning of humans, we will skip that and start at 30,000 BC Humans developed in Africa (bone remains and rudimentary tools suggest that), spread to north Africa into east, then to europe varies greatly by area, the following dates are very general Paleolithic: c. 5 million BC to c. 8000 BC paleo means early, lithic means stone, “early stone age” Earliest hominids about 5 million years ago, Homo sapiens developed only 40,000 years ago and moved into Europe about that time… they were anatomically modern humans (had a specific brain capacity) Encountered the Neanderthal in Europe, but Neanderthals quickly became extinct… theories 1. Couldn’t adapt to changes and competition, 2. Neanderthal was an evolutionary dead end that wouldn’t have survived even without Homo sapiens Only fashioned tools were made of stone during all of the “lithic” ages Mesolithic: c. 10,000 BC to c. 3,000 BC (depending on location) Meso- middle “middle stone age” Stone tools Neolithic: c. 10,000 BC (Ancient Near East); c 3,000 BC (Western Europe) Neo- new “new stone age” Stone tools Western Civilization: definitions of “Western” and “Civilization” BC/AD and BCE/CE: from year 0—BC count backwards and AD count forward
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Prehistoric: before written history, must use primary sources such as discarded food, bones, and fire pits Primary sources are often more reliable than written artifacts… because written history always has a writer’s bias (what they want to tell about the events, what they want you to know) Paleolithic: Ice Age: glaciers Much of the earth’s water was frozen into huge glaciations… so the water was 300 feet lower everywhere Food was very scarce You could walk from England to France… Siberia to Alaska… Italy to Sicily to Carthage… sea level was so low there was more land Early Paleolithic settlements were along the shorelines of the bodies of water, as the earth warmed the sea level rose and covered much of the evidence of early civilizations and washed much of it away… marine archaeologists are trying to uncover it Unfavorable climate, cold, food scarce, living conditions difficult, had not mastered agriculture Followed herds of animals, collected nuts, seeds, berries… followed mammoths and rhinoceroses. Wooly ones. Because they were always moving there was no need to build a nice stone house,
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HUM 111 LECTURE 1 - MY TA IS Elizabeth...

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