COM 200 Final Exam Review

COM 200 Final Exam Review - COM 200 Final Exam Review Ch 19...

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COM 200 Final Exam Review Ch. 19 – Information Systems Approach to Organizations (by Karl Weick) Organizing is the process of making sense out of equivocal information through enactment, selection, and retention of information. Organizations survive in hostile environments when they succeed in reducing equivocality through retrospective sensemaking. When faced with an ambiguous situation, managers should rely on double interacts rather than rules. Act first, plan later. I. Introduction A. Karl Weick focuses on the process of organizing rather than the structure of organizations. B. He equates organizing with information processing. C. His model of organizing describes how people make sense out of confusing verbal inputs. II. Organizing: making sense out of equivocal information. A. Uncertainty denotes a lack of information. B. Equivocality refers to situations where at least two interpretations are equally valid. C. When information is equivocal, people need a context or framework to help them sort through the data. D. Face-to-face interaction is crucial when an organization faces equivocal information. III. Sensemaking in a loosely coupled system. A. Universities are loosely coupled, which is to their advantage. B. Requisite variety is the degree of complexity and diversity an organization needs to match the level of equivocality of the data it processes. C. Since universities handle complex information they will fail at sensemaking unless they are loosely coupled. D. Weick prefers biological over mechanical models of organization. E. The basic unit of interconnectedness is the double interact. 1. It consists of three elements—act, response, and adjustment. 2. Its importance is why Weick focuses more on relationships within an organization than on an individual’s talent or performance. F. The university illustrates double interacts in a loosely coupled system. 1. Individual departments and units on campus are not closely connected. 2. Loose coupling allows the university to absorb shocks, scandals, and stupidity. IV. Organize to survive in a changing environment A. Weick applies Darwin’s survival-of-the-fittest theory to organizations. B. The ultimate goal of an organization is survival. C. Some people organize in a way better adapted to survive than do others. D. Unlike animals, organizations can change when their members alter their behavior. V. The three-stage process of social-cultural evolution. A. Social-cultural evolution is a three-stage process: enactment, selection, retention. B. Enactment: don’t just sit there; do something. 1
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COM 200 Final Exam Review 1. Organizations have open boundaries with the outside environment, which they partially create through their activity. 2. The failure to act is the cause of most organizational ineffectiveness.
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COM 200 Final Exam Review - COM 200 Final Exam Review Ch 19...

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